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TIDBITS AVOIDS

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POISON by Janet Spencer

In the 1940s there were only 60 possible poisons that could be used to kill a person. Then came the chemical explosion, and by the mid-1970s there were some 5,000 poisons which could be combined in different ways to produce perhaps a quarter of a million different deadly doses. Come along with Tidbits as we avoid poisons!

BOTULISM

• In a small town in Germany in 1735, thirteen people shared a sausage. A few hours later, they all became sick. Six died, and the other seven took months to recover. The strange illness was named after the Latin word for sausage— botulism. • The botulism toxin is seven million times more powerful than cobra venom. One ounce, properly distributed, could wipe out everyone in the U.S. The botulism organism evolved on this planet some two billion years ago. At that time, there was no oxygen on Earth. • Today botulism lives indefinitely as a dormant spore in air and dirt, surviving temperatures between absolute zero and boiling. When it finds the right conditions— plenty of food and an absence of oxygen— it multiplies, releasing toxins. Deaths from botulism are particularly worrying for home canners. If a jar has not been heated high enough or long enough, the botulism organism will thrive.

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THE FACTS BEHIND POISONS

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• A poison called saxitoxin found in contaminated seafood is so deadly that 2/10ths of 1 milligram, or 1/100th of a drop, can kill a full grown man through paralysis. HOW can such a small amount of a substance kill such a large organism? One way is through enzyme sabotage.

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Quiz Bits

5. Out of the nine phyla in the animal kingdom, which is the only class that includes no poisonous species? 6. How many electors make up the United States Electoral College? 7. In the 1970s-80s TV drama of the same name, what does the acronym “CHiPs” refer to? 8. In which two books of the Bible do

?

1. Approximately how many Americans suffer from poison ivy each year? 2. What percentage of people bitten by rattlesnakes will die? 3. Which kill more people in the U.S. annually: bees and wasps, or rattlesnakes? 4. Which venom is more potent: black widow spider, or rattlesnake?

the Ten Commandments appear?

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• An enzyme is a catalyst for biochemical reactions. In very tiny amounts, an enzyme has a great effect on a living system. The enzyme maltase takes water and other materials and turns them into glucose. The enzyme cytochrome turns oxygen in the blood into a usable form. There are thousands of enzymes in the human body. A single liver cell has about 50,000 enzymes. Find a substance that turns off a single important enzyme, and you have a major monkey wrench in the machinery of the body. A dose of cyanide weighing as much as a postage stamp will shut down the cytochrome enzyme. There will be plenty of oxygen in the blood stream, but no way to get it into the cells without cytochrome. • Another type of poison is one that affects the nervous system. All important signals in the body are sent through the biological wiring of the nerves. Many substances cause the signals to fail: either the “phone” is always busy; or the bell fails to ring; or the phone is answered but the voice is so distorted it can’t be understood. Important messages such as “Breathe!” fail to get through. Curare, a resin from tropical plants, does just that, by relaxing the body to such an extent that breathing stops, the same way saxitoxin works as well.

IT’S A FACT

• The oleander is a shrubby tree that is so poisonous that single leaf is fatal to man. At a tragic beach party, a dozen people used oleander sticks to roast hot dogs over a fire. The whole group was found dead at the scene. ...continued

Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks

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SPORTS QUIZ 1. What is the nickname of the University of Idaho sports teams? 2. In 2015, Mike Trout and Prince Fielder became the 9th and 10th players to hit for the career cycle in the All-Star Game. Name four of the first eight to do it. 3. What’s the earliest day of the year that a Super Bowl took place?

4. Which NFL player holds the record for the most consecutive regular season road games with at least one TD pass? 5. T or F: The Carolina Panthers scored the fewest points of their 2015 season in the Super Bowl. 6. Name the last person other than Lionel Messi or Cristiano Ronaldo to win the FIFA Ballon d’Or (top male soccer player in the world). (hint: 2007)

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POISONOUS PLOTS

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• In 1776 a cook in George Washington’s camp overheard a plot to kill General Washington by poisoning his peas. The cook tipped off the General, who quietly ate the rest of his lunch, leaving the peas untouched. The peas were later fed to some chickens, who all died. It is not known what became of the traitor. • Imprisoned for years until his death on the island of St. Helena, Napoleon Bonaparte was so ill that he was certain he was being poisoned. His doctors scoffed. When he died, they said his death was due to stomach cancer. Years later, the science of toxicology had advanced to the point where researchers were able to analyze his hair for evidence of poison. They found that for weeks before his death, he had regularly been fed arsenic in his meals.

TOXIC FISH

• The most venomous fish is the stonefish. Each of the 13 dorsal spines on the fish carries a dose of neurotoxin powerful enough to kill a full-size shark or a human who touches it. The neurotoxin attacks nerve cells, inhibiting their function. The result is paralysis, which is fatal if the toxin reaches the heart or lungs. Fortunately, the venom can be broken down if heat is applied, which generally involves immersing the affected area in water heated to 113F for as long as possible.

ACCIDENTAL DEATHS

• Accidental poisonings are the leading cause of deaths in the home. Among children under the age of five, medicines account for 44% of poisonings, followed in frequency by cleaning agents, cosmetics, plants, and paint products. More children are poisoned on Sunday than any other day, possibly because parents are sleeping late and the children are unsupervised. Prime danger hours during the week are between 4:00 and 6:00 p.m., when parents are fixing dinner or otherwise distracted. ...continued

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West Nile Virus in Local Mosquitoes!!!

What is Zika Virus?

Grand Forks Health Department has identified West Nile virus (WNV) in local mosquitoes. WNV is a serious disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Most people infected with this disease will have no symptoms or mild symptoms but this is a serious disease and can be fatal. The Grand Forks Public Health Department urges citizens to take personal precautions to avoid mosquito bites. The type of mosquito most common for transmitting WNV is present in our area and is most active from dusk until dawn. Please take the necessary measures to avoid mosquito bites.

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in tropical regions. These mosquitoes are not native to North Dakota. From what we currently know, the risk of Zika virus becoming established in ND is extremely low. About 80% of the people infected with Zika have no symptoms while the other 20% may experience mild flu-like symptoms: fever, joint pain, rash, headache, muscle aches. Symptoms usually last from a few days to one week. Zika virus is also linked to a severe birth defect known as microcephaly. The CDC and WHO recommend that pregnant women postpone travel to areas with ongoing Zika epidemics. There is no specific antiviral treatment and no vaccine or prophylactic medications available for this virus. Supportive care is recommended. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and fatalities are rare. Although, Guillain-Barre syndrome has been reported patients following CDC’s in Response to Zika suspected Zika virus infection.

How do people get infected with WNV? Most people get infected with WNV by an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to humans and other animals. In a very small number of cases, West Nile virus has been spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.

Can I get West Nile virus directly from birds? There is no evidence that a person can get infected from handling live or dead infected birds. However, you should avoid bare-handed contact when handling any dead animal. If you must pick up a dead bird, use gloves or an inverted plastic bag to place the bird’s carcass (body) in a garbage bag.

Est. Range of mosquitoes suspected to transmit Zika

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West Nile virus is found in all 48 contiguous states (not in Alaska and Hawaii) and the virus circulates in mosquitoes and birds every year. Because West Nile virus is well established, some states and local jurisdictions are no longer collecting dead birds for testing. Instead, they have chosen to shift staff and funding resources away from testing of dead birds to other areas of West Nile virus surveillance and control.

Serious illness can occur in people of any age. However, people over 60 years of age are at the greatest risk for severe disease. People with certain medical conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, and people who have received organ transplants, are also at greater risk for serious illness.

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LESSONS LEARNED

• A bean with the Latin name of Abrus precatorius is shiny and attractive, being red and black. 701-746-8684 These beans were regularly used in jewelry and View our Displays in our showroom at: bead work. No one suspected they were poison4224 Gateway Dr. • Grand Forks www.sunroomsplusgf.com On 4 season Solariums when ous, because a bean that has an unbroken shell ordered by July 15! will pass through the digestive system without FREE ESTIMATES! doing any harm. But when holes were drilled $500 OFF through the bean, it provided easy access to the Any Sunspace 3 or 4 toxin. Children who put the beads in their mouths, Season Room th or women who wore them on sweaty necks died. when ordered by August 15 Finally the connection was made between the Create your personal Haven with a Sunspace enclosure or sunroom and take bead and death, and they are no longer used. 001100955r1

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• In the 1800s hats made from felt were popular. Hat makers had to use mercury when forming the hats, and would breathe mercury vapor and get mercury on their skin. Soon their hands would begin to shake and they would undergo weird personality changes, eventually becoming “mad as a hatter” because of the toxic effects of mercury poisoning.

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• In 1830 a pharmacist from Paris rose before the members of the French Academy and told them that powdered charcoal was an effective antidote to many poisons of the day. To prove it, he swallowed ten times the amount of strychnine needed to kill a human, and followed it with half an ounce of charcoal. The strychnine would normally have killed him with terrible convulsions immediately, yet he walked away unharmed. For the next century, charcoal, because of its incredibly absorbent nature, was the premiere antidote the world over. In the stomach it absorbs and deactivates alcohol, arsenic, barbiturates, cocaine, digitalis, ipecac, morphine, nicotine, opium, and quinine, among other things. Even today, a poison victim in a modern hospital is often treated with a hemodetoxifier, in which the blood is removed from the body, run through a fancy charcoal filter, then returned to the bloodstream.

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Amazing Animals:

SNAKE BITES

• There are 20 species of poisonous snakes in the U.S., and about 8,000 people are bitten by them each year. Of those, 5 to 10 will die. • There are two kinds of venom, which is a modified saliva. One is a nerve poison that stops the heart and lungs. The other attacks the blood cells and tissues, making the meal easier to digest. Small animals die quickly but large animals are seldom killed. The snake has enzymes in its own stomach that deactivates the poison. Still, if a snake accidentally bites itself, it dies. • Antivenin can provide relief, and generally cuts the hospital stay in half. Antivenin is produced by injecting horses (or sheep, rabbits, and goats) with ever-increasing doses of snake venom. The horse produces antibodies to protect it from the venomous proteins. Blood is then withdrawn from the horse, and those antibodies are separated and harvested. When injected into a human who has suffered a snake bite, the horse antibodies bind to the poison and neutralize it. However, many people have severe reactions when horse proteins are injected into their bodies. It can trigger an allergic reaction known as serum sickness, which is sometimes worse than the snake bite itself. Symptoms can include fever, rashes, nausea, weakness, nerve inflammation, and sometimes permanent muscle atrophy. • Researchers have found that when chickens are injected with venom, their antibodies become concentrated in the yolks of their eggs. It’s easier to extract pure antivenin from egg yolk, and humans are much less likely to suffer allergic reactions to egg proteins than to horse proteins. Researchers hope that this will one day be the method used to treat snake bites worldwide.

• An Australian snake called the taipan is so deadly that there has never been a documented case of anyone surviving a bite. One researcher who milked a single taipan calculated that a single bite would be enough to kill 23,500 mice. The taipan is considered the deadliest snake in the world. • A cobra has enough venom stored in its glands to kill 30 people. The bite of a cobra can kill a man in 15 minutes if the dose is big enough. Weight for weight, cobra venom is 40 times deadlier than cyanide, five times more deadly than the venom of the black widow, and about the same toxicity as scorpion venom. Three drops can be deadly. Cobra venom is especially toxic because it contains a bundle of different poisons: one affects the nerves, one destroys red blood cells, and one paralyzes the muscles. • The deadliest snake in the U.S. is the eastern diamondback rattlesnake, although it ranks #23 on the list of most world’s most toxic snake venoms. • 75% of snake bites in the U.S. are from a rattlesnake. • Rattlesnake venom that has been stored for 50 years still retains its potency. • Worldwide, more people in India die from snake bites every year than any other country, with around 11,000 yearly fatalities annually, accounting for over half of snakebite deaths worldwide. Pakistan comes second with about 8,200 fatalities each year. • Although there are about 50 different kinds of venomous snakes in Australia, 80% of all snakebites in the country come from the eastern brown snake. • Canada has only two species of venomous snakes and both are species of rattlesnake. • The words “venom” and the “-venin” in “antivenin” come from the Latin “venene” meaning potion or poison.

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• It was 20th-century Japanese engineer and industrialist -- and founder of the Honda Motor Company -- Soichiro Honda who made the following sage observation: "If you hire only those people you understand, the company will never get people better than you are. Always remember that you often find outstanding people among those you don't particularly like." • Actress Shirley MacLaine claims that in a past life, she was a gypsy who had an affair with Roman Emperor Charlemagne. • Unless you live in a snowy mountain town, you've probably never heard of skijoring. In what is probably the most popular contemporary version of this sport, a skier is pulled by one or more dogs wearing a harness that allows the dogs to be directed. The racecourse can be short, for sprints, or as long as 270 miles in cross-country competitions. Equestrian skijoring is rather more like water-skiing: A horse with a rider pulls a skier on a towline through a series of jumps and obstacles. Equestrian skijoring was a demonstration sport at the 1928 Winter Olympics in Switzerland. • Those who study such things say that honey is the only food that doesn't spoil. So, next time you run across some 3,000-year-old honey, feel free to chow down. • At a Mets game at Citi Field, a woman lost a gold tooth down a toilet, and she decided to reach in after it. Unfortunately for her, the restrooms there use a high-vacuum system, and she was pulled in up to her armpit. Unable to extricate herself, she had to spend several hours in this undignified position until a plumber could come to her aid. *** Thought for the Day: "There is no greater fallacy than the belief that aims and purposes are one thing, while methods and tactics are another." -- Emma Goldman

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• On Aug. 2, 1776, members of Congress sign an enlarged copy of the Declaration of Independence. Fifty-six delegates signed the document, going by state from north to south, beginning with New Hampshire and ending with Georgia. • On Aug. 7, 1782, Gen. George Washington creates the "Badge for Military Merit," a purple silk decoration to be presented to soldiers for meritorious action. In 1932, the U.S. War Department announced the creation of the Purple Heart. • On Aug. 5, 1914, the world's first electric traffic signal is put into place in Cleveland. Four pairs of red and green lights, each mounted on a corner post, served as stop-go indicators. • On Aug. 6, 1928, renowned pop artist Andy Warhol is born in Pittsburgh. He took literally the advice of an art teacher who said he should paint the things he liked. Warhol liked ordinary things, such as canned soup and soft drinks, and so he painted them. • On Aug. 4, 1944, the Nazi Gestapo captures 15-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family in a sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse. The Franks had taken shelter there in 1942 out of fear of deportation to a Nazi concentration camp and were aided by Christian friends.

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• On Aug. 1, 1966, Charles Whitman goes on a shooting spree at the University of Texas, killing 14 people and wounding 31 from atop a 300-foot tower. He had told his doctor that he was thinking about shooting people from the tower with a rifle, but the doctor never followed up. • On Aug. 3, 1977, "The Spy Who Loved Me," starring Roger Moore as James Bond, is released in theaters. The film features one of the most memorable Bond cars ever -- a sleek Lotus Esprit that does double duty as a submarine. © 2016 King Features Synd., Inc.


King Features Weekly Service

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July 18, 2016

• Use toothpaste to clean headlights: Simply apply a healthy dose of toothpaste to the plastic cover, use a clean, damp rag to buff in small circles, and wash away. Don’t press down too hard. The mild abrasive is able to get a layer of cloudiness off.” — R.S.L. in Michigan • Thread a rubber band through the slats of your AC vent in the car. Then slip the loops around your smartphone at the top and bottom. This is effective for tying up the phone when using a radio app or your GPS navigation. As always, pull over to make phone calls or to text. • Dollar-store baskets that are meant for craft supplies or as shower caddies make excellent fast-food holders for road trips. Burger, fries and a shake can fit nicely in the compartments, and they are more lap-friendly. • Hang a tennis ball from the garage ceiling to where it will hit your windshield when you park. You’ll always know just how far to pull in. • “I find that my family eats more fruits and veggies as snacks when they are prepared and ready to eat. So, when I get home from the grocery store, I immediately cut up and prep all the fruits and veggies that need it, and store them in plastic containers in the fridge. They are easy to see and convenient to snack on.” — R.C. in Oregon • To avoid a dirty-smelling hamper, place a single sheet of fabric softener in the bottom of your laundry closet or in the hamper itself. Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, 628 Virginia Drive, Orlando, FL 32803.


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HEART ATTACK FACTS • 37% of all deaths in the United States are related to heart disease, making it the largest single cause of natural death. Heart disease kills twice as many people as all forms of cancer combined. The major causes are smoking, fatty diet, high blood pressure, obesity, stress, heredity, lack of exercise, and diabetes. It is an illness produced of man's environment. Before 1900, heart attacks were very rare. The rate of heart disease increased so sharply between 1940 and 1967 that the World Health Organization called it the world’s most serious epidemic. • Every single cell in the heart is guided by an electrical impulse which synchronizes the heartbeat so all muscle cells contract in unison to pump the blood. During a heart attack, the cells begin firing out of turn so the efficiency of the heart is lost and the blood does not get pumped. When doctors shock the heart, the shock overrides each cell’s individual firing mechanism and once again synchronizes every cell, hopefully getting them all to work together again. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a

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On September 11, 1952, the first artificial aortic valve was installed in a patient in Washington, D.C. Come along with Tidbits as we take a look at the human heart!

HEART ATTACK FACTS • 37% of all deaths in the United States are related to heart disease, making it the largest single cause of natural death. Heart disease kills twice as many people as all forms of cancer combined. The major causes are smoking, fatty diet, high blood pressure, obesity, stress, heredity, lack of exercise, and diabetes. It is an illness produced of man's environment. Before 1900, heart attacks were very rare. The rate of heart disease increased so sharply between 1940 and 1967 that the World Health Organization called it the world’s most serious epidemic. • Every single cell in the heart is guided by an electrical impulse which synchronizes the heartbeat so all muscle cells contract in unison to pump the blood. During a heart attack, the cells begin firing out of turn so the efficiency of the heart is lost and the blood does not get pumped. When doctors shock the heart, the shock overrides each cell’s individual firing mechanism and once again synchronizes every cell, hopefully getting them all to work together again. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a

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WORDS: CURIOUS COUPLES

• What do ankle and anchor have in common? They share the Latin root word “ank” meaning “bend.” The Anglo-Saxons borrowed “ank” to make the flexible ankle; the Greeks took the same root word and applied it to the curve of the anchor which held their ships in place. • “Baby,” “babble,” and “barbarian” all spring from the Greek word “barbarous” meaning a foreigner or one who speaks an incomprehensible language. It’s the same story for the rhubarb plant: the land along the river Volga was known to the Greeks as the Rha. Since this was an unknown territory, they called it “barbaron” or barbarian. A plant they found there was dubbed “rha barbaron” meaning “from the barbarian land of Rha” and then shortened to rhubarb. • The words “bull” and “fool” both come from the Anglo-Saxon word “bula” meaning a swelled-up creature, such as a big bull or a bigheaded fool. • According to legend, St. Martin was an officer in the Roman army. He was riding his horse along a lonely road one cold winter day when a beggar stopped him and asked for alms. Martin had no money, but seeing that the beggar was shivering in his rags, he took off his cloak, cut it in two with his sword, and gave half to the beggar. The story goes that the beggar then revealed himself to be Christ. A shrine was erected on the spot to commemorate the divine event where Martin had offered Christ half of a cloak. The shrine was called a “cappella” which is Latin for “little cloak.” Through the years every roadside shrine became known as a cappella. The French turned the word into “chapelle” and the English translated it as “chapel.” The Latin word for cloak is “cappa” and gives us the word cape. Therefore, “cape” and “chapel” spring from the same source.


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• The Anglo-Saxon word “heath” meant a wasteland, and gave us the words heath, heather, and heathen. Dell. Answer: • “Polak” means Polish man,NUMBER and “polka” means A VERY LARGE Polish woman. When a new dance originating in • Edward Kasner was a mathematician. In 1938 Bohemia took the world by storm, it was called he was asked to come up with a name for a the polka. The polka was very popular many very large number: the numeral one, and followed different items were named after the When by a hundred zeros. He asked hisdance. two young a nephews new fabric was invented, the manufacturer what name they would suggest. decided to name new design “polka dots.” • Nine-year-oldthe Milton suggested a name • “Glamour” “grammar” both strip comecharacter from the out of theand funnies. A cartoon same rootBarney word. was In the 1500s, anyone whochose could named very popular. Milton Barney’s last name the number. speak and write Latinforgrammar was thought be special magicalthe powers. In England •have Kasner announced new name for thesuch big a number person was said to have “gramarye” and the in his next book, altering the spelling. it “glamour.” •Scots Sixtypronounced years later, Larry Page and Both Sergeymeant Brin that any person capable of understanding Latin developed a new internet search engine. Other was surely capablesearched of casting charms as well. search engines each webpage and ranked them according to how many times a • “Trunk” is the Latin word for tree, so “tree specific term appeared on them, but Page and trunk” is redundant. A traveling case became Brin designed theirbecause search engine searchwere for known as a trunk the firstto ones the specific term and thenout find out how made out of the hollowed section of amany tree. links there were that led back to that page, • “Infans” is Latininfor “not able to speak” which resulted a better search engine. meana baby, or a member of the “infantry” •ing They decided they needed a name who that isreflected not allowed to speak unless spoken how many websites theto.search • “Bursa” thesearching. Latin word for took pocket, engine is was They the which name of Edward Kasner’s very large number, only explains why “disburse” means out of pocket they misspelled itmeans slightly, so itinended up beingA and “reimburse” back the pocket. spelledfluid-filled exactly the samein way the cartoon closed, pocket the human body character Barney spelled his last name. What’s which functions as a gliding surface to reduce it called? (Answer at bottom of page) friction between tissues of the body is called COMPUTER FACTS a burse. When a bursa becomes inflamed, the called bursitis. •condition In 1981 is Bill Gates said, “640 kb of memory ought to be enough for • In Old English, “grappe”anybody.” meant a cluster of fruit •growing Moore’stogether, Law states computer andthat “grape” was performance the hook that doubles 18 to 24 months, and evermeans since they were every gathered with. Today, “grape” 1971, this has been true. the fruit itself, and “grapple” means struggling problemMicrosoft, much as aand harvester •with HP,aGoogle, Apple struggles were all started in garages. with a hook. Answer: Google, from googol. Tidbits! Thanks for Reading

answer

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Tidbits Grand Forks - July 28, 2016  

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Tidbits Grand Forks - July 28, 2016  

"Poison," "Snake Bites" and "Curious Couples"

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