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TIDBITS TAKES by Janet Spencer

There are 13 different vitamins, all of which are essential for human life. Come along with Tidbits as we take our vitamins!

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AN ESSENTIAL ROLE

• The human body is composed of a series of complex chemical reactions. These chemical reactions occur with the help of enzymes, and the primary function of vitamins is to help our bodies create those enzymes, and help the enzymes complete their jobs. When the chemical reactions occur, the vitamins get used up and so the body needs more vitamins on a daily basis. Without vitamins, chemical reactions that depend on those vitamins come to a stop and the result can be catastrophic. Vitamins cannot be manufactured inside the human body and must come from food.

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• Plants manufacture all of the vitamins humans need except for vitamins D, B12, and (to a large extent) vitamin A. Vitamins help a plant with the process of photosynthesis. The more photosynthesis a plant has going on, the higher the level of vitamins will be contained in that plant. This is why light colored vegetables like iceberg lettuce have lower levels of vitamins than dark-colored vegetables like kale and spinach. Turn the page for more!

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Quiz Bits 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. What percent of vitamins manufactured wordwide end up in animal feed? What percentage of experimental 6. Which chemical element has medicines fail to prove their effecthe symbol K? tiveness as measured by the FDA? 7. In the movie, what are the Smokers often tend to be names of “The Blues Brothers”? deficient in what vitamin? 8. What are the top three secondWhat U.S. state’s single largest ary colors, obtained by mixing industry is supplements and two primary colors? vitamins? 9. What is the capital of Missouri? Vitamin B12 is an antidote to TRIVIA what kind of poison?

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• Vitamin A is found in animal products such as organ meat, full fat milk, butter, and cod liver oil. It’s also present in some vegetables such as dark leafy greens and foods rich in beta carotene such as carrots, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, broccoli, and cantaloupe. But the amount of vitamin A in plants is tiny compared to the amount in animal matter. • Vitamin A is stored in the liver, so the human body can usually survive up to a year without taking in any vitamin A at all. But after that, a person who is not receiving any vitamin A will first experience night blindness and then go blind entirely. This problem is particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The World Health Organization estimates that between 500,000 and a million children go blind every year, and up to 90% of those children die of complications related to their vitamin deficiency. • Today, over 70 countries have programs to deliver vitamin A supplementation to its populations in order to reduce child mortality and blindness.

VITAMIN B

• Pregnant women need to get enough B9 (also called folic acid) or their child runs the risk of being born with neurological damage. The amount of B9 that is needed each day during pregnancy is equal to about the weight of 4 grains of salt. Beans, lentils, and spinach are high in vitamin B9. • The amount of vitamin B12 needed each day is even less than that, equivalent to 1/67th of a single grain of salt. But without that tiny amount, the result is memory loss, depression, nerve damage, and anemia. Vitamin B12 is primarily present in animal-based foods such as meat and eggs, which makes strict vegans susceptible to deficiency. ...continued


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• Vitamin C is necessary for the production of collagen. Collagen is the protein that forms connective tissues that hold our bodies together. The word collagen comes from the Greek word for glue. Without collagen, the body breaks down, an illness called scurvy. • Between the time Columbus landed in the New World in 1492 and the time steam engines made ocean travel speedy in the mid-1800s, it’s estimated that over 2 million sailors died of scurvy. On any given voyage, about half of the sailors would die of scurvy, which was more than died of shipwreck, combat, storms, and diseases combined. • James Lind was a Scottish doctor who helped discover the connection between vitamin C and the prevention of scurvy. In 1747 he took 12 sailors who were all suffering from scurvy and divided them into six pairs. All the men ate the same food and lived in the same quarters but he gave each pair a different remedy to try to cure them. The remedies were widely varied and included such things as garlic, seawater, and cream of tartar. But the two sailors whose remedy included citrus fruit recovered from their scurvy so quickly that they were able to assist the doctor in his experiments. Lind largely failed to recognize the significance of this discovery and scurvy continued to plague sailors for many decades to come.

VITAMIN D

• Vitamin D is not naturally available in very many foods. The best sources are fatty fish such as tuna, salmon, mackerel, and cod liver oil. However, the body is able to synthesize its own vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light. When you take a vitamin D pill, the contents of that pill may have originated with lanolin from sheep’s wool. ...continued


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TOO MUCH OF A GOOD THING

• Many people feel that if a little bit is good, then more must be better, but that is not always the case. The healthiest and safest doses of vitamins are the ones that appear naturally in food. Taking too much vitamin D on a regular basis can eventually cause calcium deposits in places where calcium deposits don't belong, such as your arteries or kidneys. Excess vitamin D can also interfere with blood clotting. Too much vitamin A can cause liver damage, birth defects, and death in extreme cases. Too much vitamin C can cause kidney stones.

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• In World War II the Nazis cut off all supplies headed for Holland. Famine set in quickly. About 22,000 people died of starvation and another quarter of a million were made ill. The average weight loss among the population was about 20% of body weight. Nine months after the famine ended, the birth rate dropped by 50%. • After the war ended, researchers wanted to find out how that period of starvation affected the citizens who survived it. They were not surprised to find that children who had been in the womb when their mothers experienced starvation had increased risk of physical and mental health problems as they grew into adults. They suffered from higher rates of depression, cardiovascular problems, and type 2 diabetes. But researchers were very surprised to find that these negative effects extended not only to the children but also to the grandchildren of the people who had been involved. The grandchildren of the mothers who had experienced starvation also grew up to have higher than normal levels of health problems, all due to famine conditions suffered by their grandparents.

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NUGGET OF KNOWLEDGE The first multivitamin appeared on the market in the middle of the 1930s. By 1942 vitamin sales in the United States had already reached $136 million per year and nearly a quarter of Americans were taking vitamin pills every day. Just a year later, sales were up to $180 million. *Answers located further back in this issue.

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• It was 19th-century Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh -- one of the most popular artists of all time -- who made the following sage observation: "Conscience is a man's compass, and though the needle sometimes deviates, though one often perceives irregularities when directing one's course by it, one must still try to follow its direction." • Those who study such things say that penguins are so well insulated that, in general, they have a harder time staying cool than they do staying warm. • You've probably never wondered how to categorize the dill pickle, but some people have. Is it a fruit? Hard to say. The cucumber is, technically, a fruit -- part of the gourd family -- so it would seem that a pickle is, too. • You've almost certainly heard of the Rock of Gibraltar -- as a metaphor for strength and solidity, if for no other reason. This famed monolith of limestone on the European side of the Strait of Gibraltar, that narrow connection between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, makes up only half of the Pillars of Hercules. On the African side of the strait is Jabal Musa, and this southern half of the Pillars is twice as tall as its more famous partner to the north. • Many people don't realize that the popular name Renee means "reborn." • The state of Delaware was named for Delaware Bay, which in turn was named for the first English governor of the colony of Virginia. His name was Thomas West, but his title was Baron De la Warr. Ultimately, his title is derived from the Old French term "de la werre," which means "of the war." *** Thought for the Day: "Patriotism is supporting your country all the time, and your government when it deserves it." -- Mark Twain

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Amazing Animals:

FROGS

• “Amphibian” comes from the Greek words meaning “two lives” since the frog can live both in the water and on the land. • Frogs always croak, right? Wrong. The European tree frog sounds like a quacking duck. Another kind of frog sounds like a cat meowing. • Frogs have no ribs. • A frog closes its eyes by pulling the eyeballs deeper into the sockets, which serves to close the eyelids. • A frog's tongue is attached to the front of its mouth to give a longer reach. • Do frogs have teeth? Just two tiny teeth in the upper jaw, which keep prey from getting away. • A frog does not need to drink water because it absorbs water through its skin. • A frog’s thigh, shin, and foot are of nearly equal length, to make jumping easier. • A bullfrog with a six-inch body can leap ten times its own body length. • Tadpoles are generally born being one sex or the other, but environmental influences can change the frog’s sex. If food is scarce or the temperature is not right, the transformation of female tadpoles into male frogs keeps the population down until conditions improve in the pond. • Some frogs have lived for 20 years. One toad lived 36 years. • If you pick up a frog while you have insect repellent on your hands, the frog will absorb it through the skin and become very sick.

• Handling a toad does not cause warts. • Frogs don’t always lay their eggs in ponds. • The Malaysian hill frog lives high in the mountains where there are few ponds, so it lays its eggs in damp moss that hangs from trees. The tadpoles develop into frogs there. • One kind of poison dart frog lays eggs on moist vegetation, and then watches over the eggs until the tadpoles hatch. Then the young crawl up on the backs of either parent and are literally glued in place by a mucous secretion. They are attached there for more than a week, until the parent can find a pool to release them. The water loosens the mucous bond, and the young swim free. • Bullfrogs can lay 20,000 eggs at a time. On the other hand, some kinds of dart-poison frogs will lay a single tiny egg in each of the miniature “ponds” that forms when rainwater collects in the base of a leaf. The mother frog will also lay a number of unfertilized eggs next to the fertilized egg so the tadpole will have something to eat when it hatches. • The eggs of the horned marsupial frog are placed on the mother’s back, where a pouch of skin grows around them to protect them. Tadpoles of the frog hatch and develop in that pouch, completing their development into frogs without ever seeing water. • The male midwife toad will wrap the long sticky strands of eggs around his legs, hopping around with them until they are ready to hatch. Then he deposits them in the water. • The eggs of the leopard frog are white on one side and black on the other. The white part contains the genetic material; the black part contains a barrier to ultraviolet light. When exposed to light, the egg rotates its black side up, blocking the UV radiation and absorbing heat that helps with incubation.

Answer

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• On May 30, 1911, Ray Harroun drives his single-seater Marmon Wasp to victory in the inaugural Indianapolis 500 auto race. Harroun completed the 500-mile race in 6 hours and 42 minutes, averaging almost 75 mph. • On May 31, 1929, after two years of friendly negotiations, Ford Motor Company signs a landmark agreement to produce cars in the Soviet Union, which in 1928 had only 20,000 cars and a single truck factory. • On June 5, 1933, the United States goes off the gold standard, a monetary system in which currency is backed by gold. All persons owning gold coin, bullion or certificates were required to deliver it to the Federal Reserve for the set price of $20.67 per ounce. Americans could not legally own gold again until 1974. • On June 3, 1940, determined to wreck France's economy and military, the German air force bombs Paris, killing 254 people. Most of the victims were civilians, including schoolchildren. • On June 2, 1953, Queen Elizabeth II, age 27, is formally crowned monarch of the United Kingdom at London's Westminster Abbey in a ceremony steeped in traditions that date back a millennium. • On June 1, 1967, the Beatles release "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band," regarded by many as the greatest album in the history of rock 'n' roll. Upon hearing the album for the first time, Bob Dylan told Beatle Paul McCartney: "Oh, I get it, you donÕt want to be cute anymore." • On June 4, 1972, Angela Davis, a black militant, is acquitted on charges of conspiracy, murder and kidnapping by an all-white jury in California. She was accused of supplying weapons used in a courtroom takeover and shoot-out that killed a superior court judge and three others. © 2016 King Features Synd., Inc.

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SUMMER PROGRAMS & EVENTS 2016 There’s a wide variety of enrichment activities available this summer at the University of North Dakota such as athletic and educational youth camps, professional seminars, and social events for all ages. Visit our website for a full listing of what Summer @ UND has to offer from May 15 to August 15.

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What is Zika Virus?

(Answer on next page)

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in tropical regions. These mosquitoes are not native to North Dakota. From what we currently know, the risk of Zika virus becoming established in ND is extremely low. About 80% of the people infected with Zika have no symptoms while the other 20% may experience mild flu-like symptoms: fever, joint pain, rash, headache, muscle aches. Symptoms usually last from a few days to one week. Zika virus is also linked to a severe birth defect known as microcephaly. The CDC and WHO recommend that pregnant women postpone travel to areas with ongoing Zika epidemics. There is no specific antiviral treatment and no vaccine or prophylactic medications available for this virus. Supportive care is recommended. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and fatalities are rare. Although, Guillain-Barre syndrome has been reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection. CDC’s Response to Zika Est. Range of mosquitoes suspected to transmit Zika The maps below, show CDC’s the potential ESTIMATED rangebest ofestimate Aedesofalbopictus range of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the United and Response Aedes toaegypti in the United States, 2016 CDC’s Zika States (2016). These maps include areas where mosquitoes are or have been range previously Shaded areas on ESTIMATED of found. Aedes albopictus the maps do not necessarily mean that there are infectedAedes aegypti mo and Aedes aegypti in the United States, likely 2016 to spr mosquitoes in that area. SOURCE: Zika: Vector Surveillancemore like Zika, dengue, WA

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* Maps have been updated from a variety of sources. These maps represent CDC’s best estimate of the potential range of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the


King Features Weekly Service

© 2016 King Features Synd., Inc.

(Answers located on next page)

May 16, 2016

• “Use clear nail polish to ‘paint’ the bottom of shaving cream cans. Then it will not leave a rust ring no matter where it sits in the tub.” — E.M. in Texas • For healthy leftovers, use plastic wrap instead of aluminum foil, experts say. You’re more likely to consume items you can see. Stash them front and center in the refrigerator. • Shoes on the right feet? Draw a semi-circle on the soles inside your kid’s shoes, so that when they are placed side by side it makes a circle. Now Junior can figure it out for himself! • “Insert a square of cork board (available at office-supply stores) in an old picture frame. You can use it to store and display earrings or necklaces (use pins to hang chains from). You could even use it as an actual corkboard!” — A.R. in Michigan • Need a temporary playpen when traveling? How about a blow up pool? Supervision required, but containment achieved. • Heart-healthy oils like olive oil are a must in any cook’s kitchen. However, even if a jar is worthy of display, keep it in a cabinet. Oils break down when exposed to light. Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, 628 Virginia Drive, Orlando, FL 32803.


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NUGGET OF KNOWLEDGE In it's natural state, Vitamin C is a chalky white powder. Vitamins A and D are sticky crystals that melt in oil. Vitamin E is a clear fluid. Vitamin B12 is bright pink.

• Pres. Abraham Lincoln created the United States Bureau of Agriculture which contained within itself the Division of Chemistry. The Division of Chemistry eventually evolved into the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA. At the time it was instigated, the Division of Chemistry had exactly one employee who was in charge of things like finding out what vendors were diluting their milk with water, or adding ground up lice to brown sugar, since ground up lice looks just like brown sugar. • It wasn't until the year 1906 that the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed by Congress, the nation's first federal law concerning food and drugs. The law was strengthened and bolstered in 1938, closing many loopholes and putting the burden upon the manufacturers to prove their products were safe and effective. • Today, the FDA regulates things such as food, cosmetics, tobacco products, medical devices, veterinarian supplies, pharmaceuticals, and even blood transfusions. However, the FDA is not responsible for testing or approving nutritional supplements. If a particular supplement claims that it will help your arthritis, the FDA is not responsible for testing that hypothesis or for making sure the supplement doesn't have any side effects. Manufacturers are not required to prove that their product is safe or effective before releasing it on the market. There is little the FDA can do about that. • The only time the FDA has been successful in pulling a dangerous supplement off the shelves was when it outlawed ephedra, a stimulant that caused over 100 deaths. • Today there are over 85,000 supplements and vitamins products available for sale in America. About 50% of American adults use some sort of dietary supplement. ...continued


DIFFERENCES: 1. Fence board is smaller. 2. Number is missing. 3. Glove is different. 4. Dog's ears are different. 5. Leg is moved. 6. Shirt name is changed. © 2016 King Features Synd., All rights reserved.

• In a study done in the year 2013, Canadian researchers tested the ingredients in 44 different supplements Answer: Dell. and vitamins. One-third of the products did not contain any amount of the A VERY LARGE NUMBER substances listed on their labels whatsoever. •Many Edward Kasner was awere mathematician. In 1938 of the products nothing more than he was asked to come up with a name for a powdered rice. very large number: the numeral one, followed • The the world’s supply synthetby amajority hundredofzeros. He asked his of two young name theyChina, wouldwhich suggest. icnephews vitaminswhat comes from exports 200,000 tons of vitamins per year. •about Nine-year-old Milton suggested a name out of the funnies. A cartoon strip character • Synthetic vitamin A comes from acetone and named Barney Synthetic was very popular. Milton chose formaldehyde. niacin (vitamin B3) Barney’s last name for the number. is made using a synthetic fiber that is also used •inKasner the new for thethiabig carpetsannounced and conveyor belts.name Synthetic number in his next the spelling. mine (vitamin B1) book, comesaltering from coal tar. All •synthetic Sixty years later, Larry Page and Sergey Brin vitamins are chemically identical to developed a new internet search engine. Other natural vitamins available in food, but natural search engines webpage and vitamins in food searched come in aeach complete package ranked them according to how many times a that also offers other beneficial specific term appeared on them,compounds. but Page and Brin designedsuch their as search to search for • Associations the engine American Cancer the specific term then findHeart out how many Association, the and American Associalinks there were that led back to that page, tion, and the American Diabetes Association which resulted in a better search engine. recommend that healthy people without nu•tritional They decided theywho needed name diet that deficiencies eat a abalanced reflected how many websites the search avoid taking any multivitamins at all. It's not engine was They took the because the searching. vitamins are harmful, it'sname just of Edward Kasner’s very large number, only that they are unnecessary. However, pregnant they misspelled it slightly, so it ended up being women folic acid, spelled should exactlytake theextra samedoses wayofthe cartoon elderly women should take a daily dose of calcharacter Barney spelled his last name. What’s cium, and vegans supplement it called? (Answershould at bottom of page)their diet with vitaminCOMPUTER B12. FACTS

answer

• •AInstudy the year which fol1981published Bill Gatesinsaid, “6402012 kb of memory lowed middle-aged doctors found that ought 15,000 to be enough for anybody.” of the doctors any improvement •none Moore’s Law states showed that computer performance indoubles their risk of cancer when high every 18 to 24 months,they and took ever since doses vitamin C, E, and beta-carotene. High 1971,ofthis has been true. doses of vitamins also hadand noApple effect were whatso• HP, Google, Microsoft, all ever on in their cognitive functions or their risk started garages. of heart Google, attack. from googol. Answer:

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Quiz Answers

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Sports Answers 1. Wade Boggs, Derek Jeter, and Alex Rodriguez 2. Boston’s Pedro Martinez (1999)

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Tidbits Grand Forks - May 26, 2016  

"Vitamins," "Frogs" and "Supplements & Synthetics"

Tidbits Grand Forks - May 26, 2016  

"Vitamins," "Frogs" and "Supplements & Synthetics"

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