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S PUZZLE • A I • TRIV N FACTS • FU September 17, 2015
Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks Published by: Wick Publications
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It's called the King of Spices for good reason. For centuries it served as the cornerstone for various economies and it inspired trade, conquest, and exploration in search of better trade routes and new supplies. It’s the world’s most traded spice, accounting for 20% of the entire spice trade. Come along with Tidbits as we discover that pepper is nothing to sneeze at! THE HISTORY OF PEPPER • The word pepper originated with the Sanskrit word ‘pippali.’ It went into the Latin language as ‘piper’ and then into German as ‘pfeffer.’ The word pepper was used in a figurative sense to mean ‘spirit’ or ‘energy’ as far back as the 1840s. Sometime in the early 20th century, it was shortened to ‘pep.’ • Pepper is one of the oldest and most important spices in human history. Pepper was the first spice to make its way into Northern Europe as the Roman Empire spread. Back in the days when salting was the only method of preserving meat, pepper was valued because it gave food added ‘pep.’ • Historians discount the myth that pepper was popular because it disguised the taste of rotten meat, saying that nothing can disguise the taste of rotten meat. Now you can buy a year's supply of pepper for a few dollars, but it used to cost an ounce of gold to buy an ounce of pepper. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a
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Issue # 935
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THE ORIGIN OF PEPPER • Black pepper comes from the berries of a tropical vine in the botanical family called Piperaceae. The pepper that we sprinkle on our food is entirely different from the red peppers, bell peppers, chili peppers, and jalapeno peppers which come from the Capsicum family. Those are fruits, whereas black pepper is a berry. • Columbus, searching for a shorter route to the pepper supply of India, discovered the New World. Because he was desperate to find pepper, everything that he came across which had a hot taste was dubbed "pepper." That's why today we have green peppers and chili peppers. • Black pepper grows best in moist tropical areas and is native to southern India. Currently Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper, producing 34% of the world's supply. Other top exporters include India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Malaysia.
4. After this volcano exploded in 1980, souvenir salt and pepper shakers shaped like it became 1. Black pepper is the third most popular. Name the volcano. common ingredient called for in 5. What percent of the pepper recipes. What two ingredients grown in Vietnam is exported? top pepper? 6. What percent of the pepper 2. Black pepper is the most popular used in the U.S. is imported? spice in America, but what spice 7. What nutrient is the most comes in second? prevalent in black pepper? 3. A single ounce of peppercorns, 8. T or F: Black pepper contains iron. when ground, can flavor apTRIVIA proximately how many eggs?
• Pepper vines grow up to 30 feet tall, killing any tree they clamber over. On modern farms, they are kept to 12 feet to make harvest easier, and they climb up poles rather than trees.
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• Each vine becomes productive after three or four years, and will bear fruit every third year for up to 40 years. A good vine will produce up to 12 pounds of peppercorns annually. The pepper comes from berries that hang in clusters off the vine like tiny little grapes.
• When monetary value is considered, peppercorns are the most widely traded spice in the world. However, if weight is considered, slightly more chili peppers are traded than peppercorns.
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PIPERINE • The chemical in pepper called piperine (pronounced PIE-pur-een) is what gives pepper its bite. Each peppercorn is made up of about five to seven percent piperine. It's an irritant and when it comes in contact with delicate nasal passages, it causes a sneeze to clean it out. Piperine stimulates mucous membranes and it is also a diaphoretic, meaning it causes perspiration. Therefore, if you have a cold and eat a good peppery soup, it may help your congestion clear up. PEPPER POPULARITY • Black pepper is the top selling spice in America. • Americans consume 37 million pounds of pepper per year altogether. • Worldwide consumption totals 130 million pounds annually. • The average American will shake seven ounces of ground pepper onto their food at the table each year. PEPPER FACTS • Studies have shown that pepper stimulates the digestive tract, increases the appetite, and aids digestion. • Pepper starts losing its flavor as soon as it's ground, becoming completely flat in taste as the volatile oils evaporate. Ground pepper should be kept in a tightly sealed container in the refrigerator to preserve its spiciness. Whole peppercorns, on the other hand, will keep their flavor forever. • Pepper should not be added before cooking because it reacts to heat and turns bitter. Instead, sprinkle it on as a garnish after the cooking is over. (This is why waiters offer to pepper your food after the meal has arrived at your table.) • Ground pepper will not dissolve in water, but when dissolved in alcohol, it quadruples in pepper power.
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www.newvisiontruckaccessories.com BAD LUCK • Eddie Collins was an infielder for the Chicago White Sox in the early 1900s. He had a habit of sticking a piece of gum on the button on the top of his cap when he went to bat. If he got two strikes, he would take the gum off the cap and chew on it vigorously for a few minutes for good luck. But one day teammate Ted Lyons secretly sprinkled pepper on the gum just before Eddie went to bat. When Eddie got two strikes, he started chewing. He spat— and then struck out. PEPPER AS MEDICINE • Pepper decoctions are widely used in traditional Indian medicine and as a home remedy for relief from sore throat, throat congestion, and coughs. Piperine has some antimicrobial properties, but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice, the effect is small. Piperine also enhances energy metabolism in the body and has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of various nutrients, but when taken in large amounts it also has an irritating effect upon the intestines.
• Some people believe pepper can help cure vitiligo, which is a skin disease that causes some areas of skin to lose its normal pigmentation, turning it white in patches. (Michael Jackson suffered from this affliction.) According to researchers in London, piperine can stimulate the skin to produce pigment. Topical treatment of piperine combined with ultra violet light therapy is much better than the other treatments for vitiligo. • Piperine is a natural insecticide and can be used in the garden. Mix a teaspoon full of ground pepper with a quart of warm water and spray. • The volatile oils from black peppercorns are used in the manufacture of perfume in order to provide a warm and earthy odor.
& Media Materials The American Association of University Women (AAUW) is collecting now through September. Please drop off Mon-Fri. 9am-5pm @ NDAD 2660 Columbia Road S., Grand Forks. May contact Kathy: 701-772-5685
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Fighting Late Season Mosquitoes Grand Forks Mosquito Control maintains an extensive trapping network to monitor the local mosquito population and species composition. However, these traps don’t always tell us what’s out there. The weather is a major factor in determining how effective the traps are. It’s common to have artificially low trap counts when we get into September because the nights are cool and mosquitoes are not active.
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Achieving a successful spray for mosquitoes in September can be very difficult. Mosquitoes function best around 80° F, they become lethargic around 60° F and cannot function below 50° F. As we get into September, once the sun goes down the temperature usually drops rapidly and mosquito activity decrease significantly. Spraying for mosquitoes when there is little natural activity results in few mosquitoes killed and expensive chemicals needlessly sprayed. We know it is frustrating when you’re getting bit up from these pests but it isn’t that we don’t want to spray, or don’t have the staff or resources, it comes down to whether or not spraying would be effective. We need to have the right meteorological conditions when spraying mosquitoes. The best solution to this problem is to wear protective clothing and apply insect repellants that contain DEET. Please be patient, when the conditions improve for spraying, we’ll get out there as soon as we can. We want to do the best job we can to reduce the mosquito population, but we must follow the label directions for the chemicals we use and we will not be reckless with the products we use to control mosquitoes in our community.
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Grand Forks Mosquito Control has identified several pools of mosquitoes that were positive for West Nile virus this summer. The State Health Dept. has also reported human WNV from Grand Forks County. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks urge citizens to take extra precautions to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. If you have any questions or concerns relating to mosquito control visit our website at www.gfmosquito.com
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• It was noted author and Nobel laureate Ernest Hemingway who made the following sage observation: "Never think that war, no matter how justified, is not a crime. Ask the infantry and ask the dead." He would know; he volunteered as an ambulance driver on the Italian front during World War I. • Poets, take note: The words "orange," "month," "purple" and "silver" have no rhyming words in English. • Historians say that Queen Victoria didn't like knocking at doors; she preferred scratching. • If you're interested in space, you are probably aware that the second person to walk on the moon was Buzz Aldrin. Most likely, though, you didn't know that his mother's maiden name was Moon. Aldrin kept this fact a secret from NASA -- he was evidently concerned that his bosses would think he was somehow trying to gain favor.
• It's been reported that in the early days of the Christian church, forks were considered to be inappropriate. • Those who study such things say that deep-sea anglerfish mate for life -- the male's life, anyway. The female is much larger than the male, and when they mate the male attaches himself to her abdomen — where he remains, living as a parasite, until he dies. • If you have detected the presence of the paranormal by olfactory means, you've experienced "clairalience." • The ancient Inca believed that an eclipse was caused when the mood goddess was under attack by a giant snake. Whenever this event occurred, the Inca made lots of noise, believing that the cacophony would scare the snake away. *** Thought for the Day: "We now know that memories are not fixed or frozen, like Proust's jars of preserves in a larder, but are transformed, disassembled, reassembled and recategorized with every act of recollection." -- Oliver Sacks
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• George’s hobby was photography. He was going on vacation and he wanted to take pictures. The problem was that it was the 1880s, the camera weighed 30 pounds, and it took hours to produce a single photo. George decided to find a better way. • It took him three years to invent a better way. First he invented a dry glass plate instead of the wet glass plate; this simplified the process. Next he invented a way to put the emulsion on paper instead of glass. This was a miraculous improvement, but professional photographers wouldn’t use it because you could see the grain of the paper through the photo, and glass was still superior. • So George began to market it to the amateur photographer. In 1888 his camera cost $25 at a time when a new suit cost $15, so sales were slow. Then he discovered cellulose. • With cellulose film, the quality was sharp, the camera was small, and the price was cheap. He began selling cameras that were pre-loaded with 100 negatives. People would take 100 photos and then return the entire camera to the company. The company would develop the negatives,
print them out, re-load the camera with 100 more negatives, and return the entire package to the customer. • By 1896 he’d sold around 100,000 cameras. However, in 1900 he introduced a camera priced at $1 which was so simple even a child could take pictures. It was a sensation. • George decided the name of his company had to be short, simple to spell, easy to pronounce, and impossible to confuse with anything else. He came up with a nonsense name that fits all these qualifications. What’s the company called? (Extra credit for knowing George’s last name and bonus points for knowing the name of the $1 camera.) (Answer at bottom of page)
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• On Sept. 26, 1580, English seaman Francis Drake returns to England, becoming the first British navigator to sail around the world. Drake had set out from England on Dec. 13, 1577, with five ships on a mission to raid Spanish holdings on the Pacific coast of the New World. • On Sept. 27, 1869, in Kansas, Ellis County sheriff Wild Bill Hickok responds to a bar brawl and kills one man. Weeks later he killed a second man in the name of law enforcement. While his brutal ways were effective, local citizens were less than impressed. At the next election Hickok was voted out. • On Sept. 22, 1953, the world's first four-level interchange opens in Los Angeles at the intersection of the Harbor, Hollywood, Pasadena and Santa Ana freeways -- 32 lanes of traffic weaving in eight directions at once. • On Sept. 23, 1969, the trial for eight anti-war activists charged with the violent demonstrations at the 1968 Democratic National Convention opens in Chicago. The trial turned into a circus as the defendants used the court to attack President Richard Nixon, the war, racism and oppression. • On Sept. 25, 1978, a Pacific Southwest Airlines 727 jet collides in mid-air with a small plane over San Diego, killing 153 people. The Cessna's student pilot did not comply with air controller instruction to keep the plane below 3,500 feet altitude. • On Sept. 21, 1989, the Senate Armed Forces Committee unanimously confirms President George H. Bush's nomination of Army Gen. Colin Powell as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Powell became the first black American to achieve the nation's highest military post. • On Sept. 24, 1996, bestselling author Stephen King releases two new novels at once. "Desperation" was released under King's name, while "The Regulators" was published under his pseudonym, Richard Bachman.
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• "Alcatraz" is the Portuguese word for pelican; it comes from the word meaning the bucket of a waterwheel. ESCAPE FROM ALCATRAZ • The island of Alcatraz off the coast of California near San Francisco was first used as a military fortress beginning in the 1850s. Then it was a military prison for years before becoming a federal penitentiary in 1934. The prison was closed in 1963 because it had become too expensive to operate. Now it’s a tourist destination. • Over the years, 36 prisoners were involved in escape attempts. Seven of those were shot and killed; two drowned; 22 were re-captured; and five remain unaccounted for but are presumed to have drowned. One of the escape attempts served as inspiration for the 1979 movie "Escape from Alcatraz."
(Solution on Next Page)
• Guards on Alcatraz Island allegedly told prisoners that the island was surrounded by sharks who had had their right fins removed so that they could do nothing but swim in circles around the island. This was thought to deter prisoners from breaking out and swimming to the mainland. In truth, although there are sharks swimming in the waters off Alcatraz, they are not the man-eating variety, even with both fins. • It’s about a mile and a half from the island to shore, a hard swim but by no means impossible. In fact, each summer 1,000 amateur athletes compete in the Escape From Alcatraz triathlon. First they swim the mile and a half from Alcatraz Island. Then they take an 18-mile bike ride through Golden Gate Park, and they finish up with an eight-mile run through the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.
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Sports Answers 5. False. It was 1. Steve Balboni 1992-93. hit 36 HRs in 6. 3 by both 1985. Jason Jen2. Arizona, 1997 nings and 3. Italy: Vincenzo Ubaldo Nibali, in 2014 Jimenez 4. Cincinnati Bengals, in 1979.
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FAST FACT • During the years Alcatraz was used as a federal prison, the average length of stay for an inmate was five years. Answer: Dell. FAMOUS INMATES A VERY LARGE NUMBER • • AEdward total ofKasner 1,545 was menaserved time on Alcatraz, mathematician. In 1938 the mostasked famous of which wasa Al Capone, he was to come up with name for a who there for four and a very was large incarcerated number: the numeral one, followed by ayears. hundred zeros.was Hetransferred asked his two young half Capone to Alcatraz nephews name they would suggest. from the what penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia behis ‘family’ members moved into hotel • cause Nine-year-old Milton suggested a aname out of the prison funnies. cartoon strip character next to the andAcommunicated with him named Barney was very Milton chose constantly, allowing himpopular. to continue to run his Barney’s last name for the number. crime organization in Chicago. On Alcatraz he • was Kasner announced new name for behaved the big cut off from thisthe contact. Capone number his next that book, the spelling. so well atinAlcatraz healtering was allowed to play banjo in later, the inmate band,and called the Rock • the Sixty years Larry Page Sergey Brin developed a new internet search engine. Other Islanders. search engines searched each webpage and • Robert was convicted in 1909 having rankedStroud them according to how manyoftimes a murdered a bartender when he was 18 years old. specific term appeared on them, but Page and He was sent totheir Leavenworth, where he proved Brin designed search engine to search for tothebespecific a difficult and troublesome prisoner. He term and then find out how many links athere thatsentenced led back totodeath, that which page, killed guardwere and was which resulted to in life a better search engine. was commuted without parole. They decided he they needed a name • • At Leavenworth rescued a small injured that bird reflected how many websites the which sparked a lifelong love of birds,search espeengine was searching. They took the name cially canaries. He raised them, wrote about of Edward Kasner’s very large number, only them, and corresponded experts. But they misspelled it slightly, sowith it ended up being when prison officials discovered of spelled exactly the same way that the some cartoon the equipment he ordered supposedly for his character Barney spelled his last name. What’s birds was instead used of to page) build an illegal it called? (Answerbeing at bottom moonshine COMPUTER still, he was transferred FACTS to Alcatraz. He spent the next 17 years there before being • In 1981 Bill Gates said, “640 kb of memory transferred a prison in Missouri, where he ought to be to enough for anybody.” died in 1963. Although he was never allowed • Moore’s Law states that computer performance to keep birds at Alcatraz, he doubles everywhile 18 to imprisoned 24 months, and ever since still became known the Birdman of Alcatraz. 1971, this has been as true. • Robert StroudMicrosoft, was denied to see • HP, Google, andpermission Apple were all the 1962 movie starring Burt Lancaster that started in garages. was based on hisfrom life.googol. Answer: Google,
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Can be Installed in Front & Back Seats *Most Makes & Models
Reduce Glare, Heat, and Block Harmful UV Rays from damaging your vehicle.
Accessories Dept.: Matt Paschke 701-792-2820 or Jason Kowalski 701-757-5912
2700 South Washington, Grand Forks | Toll TollFree Free ((855) 855)277-8959 474-7958
"Pepper" and "Alcatraz"