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Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks

July 16, 2015

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This week, Tidbits heads to Old MacDonald’s farm to check out some interesting info about the various animals found there. • “Old MacDonald Had a Farm” was first published in 1917. The oldest recording of the popular tune is thought to be 1925, released by The Sam Patterson Trio on the Edison label. It was followed in 1927 with a version by Gid Tanner & His Skillet Lickers. • It’s believed that the first cows arrived in North America aboard the ships of Christopher Columbus’ second voyage to the Americas in 1493. • The average dairy cow weighs 1,200 lbs. and produces about 8 gallons of milk per day. It can also produce up to 125 lbs. of saliva in one day. Now that’s a lot of drool! • Although the common conception is that cows have four stomachs, they really have just one single stomach with four different digestive chambers – the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. Because of this, they can digest tough plants that normally would be indigestible. • A cow spends about eight hours a day eating and another eight chewing her cud, which is plain talk for regurgitated, partially digested food. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a

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Issue # 926

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6. What was the first major movie to show a flushing toilet? 7. What does the automaker abHow many pounds of chicken breviation BMW stand for? does the average American eat 8. What is the only word in the annually—65, 85, 105 or 125? English language that has three What is the life expectancy of a consecutive double letters? chicken that escapes the hatchet? (hint: starts with “B”) What time zone is the state of 9. Which Al Green song was covAlabama located in? ered by both Foghat (1976) and Paul Rogers was lead singer for the Talking Heads (1978)? which 1970s rock band? TRIVIA What is the capital of Arkansas?

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• Cows are social animals and actually form friendships with three or four other preferred cows. They can even experience dislike for certain cows. The cow has an amazing sense of smell, able to sniff something up to 6 miles away. • The first chickens most likely came with Christopher Columbus as well. There are now about 200 different breeds, with approximately 280 million laying chickens in the United States, each one producing about 250 to 300 eggs a year. Those seven billion eggs comprise about 10% of the world’s supply. • A hen begins laying eggs at about 19 weeks of age. The older she gets, the larger the eggs she produces. It takes her about 24 to 26 hours to produce an egg. Thirty minutes after the egg is laid, she begins the process all over again. Most eggs are laid between the hours of 7 and 11 AM. The hen needs about 5 oz. of food and 10 oz. of water to create one egg. Farmers can improve egg production just by regulating the lighting in the henhouse. The hens will lay more eggs if they’re fooled into thinking a day is 28 hours long. • Although we don’t think of them as birds of flight, chickens can actually fly. The recordsetting flight for a non-stop flight is about 230 yards. They can also travel along the ground at about 9 mph.

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E-I-E-I-O (continued): • Chewing about 50 times per minute, a cow will have more than 40,000 jaw movements throughout the day. That cow will drink up to 50 gallons of water every day.

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• Rated the fourth most intelligent animal, pigs are always communicating with each other using their more than 20 different vocalizations, varying from “I’m hungry” to “Wanna be my mate?” ...continued

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3. Who was the last majorleaguer before Houston’s Jose Altuve in 2014 to 1. In 2015, Philadelphia foramass at least 225 hits, 44 ward Jakub Voracek tied an doubles and 55 steals in a NHL All-Star Game record season? (hint: long time ago) with six points. Who else 4. How many times did Ken holds the mark? Griffey Jr. drive in 100 2. In 2014, the Los Angeles or more runs in a season Clippers’ Jamal Crawford during his 22-year majorbecame the fourth player to league career? win the NBA’s Sixth Man 5. What four NFL teams of the Year Award twice. have been to at least two Name two of the other Super Bowls without winthree. ning one?

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E-I-E-I-O (continued): • A farmer can expect a fully grown pig to weigh between 300 and 700 lbs. Even at that size, an adult pig can run at speeds of up to 11 mph. A pig can’t see very well, but its sense of smell is highly developed.

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• Pigs have gotten a bad rap over the years, with folks who eat too much or who are messy referred to as pigs. In actuality, pigs eat slowly and enjoy their food. They are careful not to soil the space where they eat and sleep. If a pig is covered in mud, it’s because it rolled in it to keep cool, and it only does that if water is unavailable. And although people might “sweat like pigs,” pigs don’t even sweat! They are physically unable to do so!

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• Goats and sheep are some of the first domesticated animals. They arrived in North America in the 1500s on the ships of Spanish explorers and settlers. Different breeds came over with English settlers in the 1600s. There are now about 200 different breeds of goats, some bred for their fiber (angora, mohair, cashmere), some for the meat, and others as dairy goats. • An average dairy goat produces about a gallon of milk daily. Although we generally think of cows as our chief source of milk, more people drink milk from goats around the world than from any other animal. Goat’s milk is easier to digest than cow’s milk, because the fat globules are smaller and remain dispersed longer in the milk. • Like the cow, a goat’s stomach also has four chambers. They enjoy all kinds of plant food – shrubs, woody plants, weeds, briars, and aromatic herbs. ...continued

Where Warriors Bank 800.936.7730 • servicecu.org/GrandForks federally insured by ncua *Rate shown is the Annual Percentage Yield (APY), accurate as of 07/19/15 and subject to change without notice. Rate is only available from 7/19/15 to 7/31/15. 2.00% APY subject to change. Other rates apply at other balance levels. Members must establish a monthly minimum automatic deposit of $25 to the Military Saves Account. Must be a member or eligible for Service Credit Union membership to open. Direct deposit of net pay to a Service Credit Union checking account is required and must be maintained, or balance may be transferred into a Share Savings Account. Enrollment into the Military Saves program is required. Must be 18 years of age or older. Dividends earned may generate a 1099 INT. **No purchase or payment of any kind is necessary to enter this sweepstakes. Entry is automatic to any member who opens a Military Saves Account between 7/19/15 and 7/31/15. Copy of official rules and entry forms are available in the branch and at servicecu.org/GrandForks. Must be 18 years or older to enter or win. Must be a military ID cardholder. GoPro is a registered trademark of GoPro, Inc.


KING C R O S S W O R D

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• Sanford Contact your local agent for for more information: moreMedicare information: t for more information: Supplements <Agent Name> • Life Insurance Financial Services <Agency Name> • Annuities <Address> Roger Parkinson • 701-772-1872 H2409, H2410, H2450_2058 (01-2009) <City, ST ZIP> ©2009 Medica. Medica contracts with the federal government. <Phone> Call for Appointment • 2750 17th Ave. S. • Ste. B • Grand Forks <Hours of Operation> >

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E-I-E-I-O (continued): • Goats are natural-born climbers, and some are able to jump more than 5 feet. They have great flexibility and often stand on their back legs to reach tree branches. They can crawl under fences and occasionally even run along the top.

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• Domesticated around 5,000 years ago in Africa, donkeys can live 30 to 50 years in captivity. They are well known for their ability to carry heavy loads for long distances. Donkeys have a reputation for being stubborn animals, but their dogged refusal to move occasionally is because they are overloaded or they sense danger. • Donkeys are members of the horse family and are often interbred with horses. The cross between a male donkey (called a jack) and a female horse (mare) produces a mule. Crossing a male horse (stallion) and a female donkey (jenny) results in a hinny, much less common than mules. Mules and hinnies are generally sterile. A donkey can even be interbred with a zebra, with the result known as a zonkey. • A horse’s eyes and teeth take up a lot of space in its head! The male’s 40 teeth take up more space than its brain. The horse also has the biggest eyes of any land mammal, about nine times larger than a human eye. Because of the eye’s location on the side of the head, a horse is able to see nearly 360 degrees at one time. • A horse’s height is measured in “hands,” a measurement of 4”. In ancient Egypt, this was considered to be the breadth of a man’s hand, the average width across the knuckles. The horse is measured from the ground to the top of the highest point of its skeleton, known as the withers.

© 2015 by King Features Syndicate. All rights reserved


NOTEWORTHY INVENTORS:

FRY AND SILVER

Where would we be without the Post-It-Note? Although it feels like this little convenience has been around forever, the public has only been using PostIt’s since 1980. Follow along and learn about the gentlemen whose research brought us one of the world’s most popular office supplies. • Dr. Spencer Silver was a scientist at the 3M Company, assigned to the duty of developing new adhesives. In the midst of his research, he discovered an adhesive that stuck lightly to surfaces but could easily be peeled off. • Fellow researcher Arthur Fry worked in the product development division at 3M, and in 1974, happened to attend a seminar conducted by Silver. During the presentation, Silver mentioned that six years earlier, he had developed a unique adhesive that would adhere to objects with a temporary bond. Silver had not yet come up with a viable use for the invention. • Fry was a devoted member of his church choir, attending practice every Wednesday evening. He used small scraps of paper to mark the hymns the group would sing for the week’s upcoming service, as well as to make notes about the music. But by the time Sunday rolled around, the bookmarks had moved around on the page or fallen out completely. • Shortly after Silver’s seminar, as Fry fumbled with the small pieces of paper in his hymnal, he was struck with the idea of using Silver’s not-yet-utilized adhesive to make a better bookmark. The next day, he sought out Silver and requested a sample, and began a series of experiments. He smeared one edge of the paper so that the part sticking out of the book wasn’t gummy.

• Teaming up with Silver, the pair set to work developing a new product. It took nearly two years to iron out the technical difficulties. Fry experimented by using the sticky note to pen notes to his supervisor and co-workers to demonstrate its usefulness. In Fry’s words, “I thought, what we have here isn’t just a bookmark. It’s a whole new way to communicate.” • The invention hit the test market in 1977 under the name of Press ‘n Peel, with disappointing results. But once dealers started handing out free samples, there was an immediate turnaround. The product hit the national market in 1980 with a new name, and the rest, as they say, is history. • How did Post-It’s become their distinctive yellow color? Coincidentally, when Fry first started his experiments, the lab only had yellow scrap paper on hand. • Today, the little sticky-notes are available in more than 150 countries around the world, with more than 4,000 different Post-It products available. A recent workplace study indicates that the average office worker receives 11 messages on a Post-In note every day. • On the humorous side, the name of Arthur Fry was mentioned in the 1997 movie Romy and Michele’s High School Reunion, after the two ditzy, under-achieving title characters claimed to have invented the Post-it-Note in the years since their high school graduation. A brainy classmate quickly corrected them as to the real inventor.

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by Samantha Weaver

• On July 26, 1775, Congress establishes the United States Post Office and names Benjamin Franklin the first postmaster general. While postmaster, Franklin streamlined postal delivery with properly surveyed and marked routes from Maine to Florida, the origins of Route 1. • On July 23, 1878, gentleman bandit Black Bart robs a Wells Fargo stagecoach in California. At the next robbery he left behind a handkerchief. Through a laundry mark, Pinkerton detectives traced the handkerchief back to Charles Bolton, an elderly man in San Francisco. Bolton confessed to being Black Bart. • On July 24, 1915, the steamer Eastland overturns in the Chicago River, drowning more than 800 of its passengers. The disaster was caused by serious problems with the boat's design. The Eastland capsized next to the dock, trapping hundreds of people on or underneath the large ship. • On July 21, 1959, Elijah Jerry "Pumpsie" Green makes his Boston Red Sox debut, becoming the first black ever to play for the Red Sox, the last team in the major leagues to integrate. • On July 25, 1965, singer-songwriter Bob Dylan rocks the world of folk music when he performs at the Newport Folk Festival and abandons his acoustic guitar for an electric one. By going electric, Dylan eventually moved rock and folk music closer together. • On July 20, 1972, a U.S. government study disputes consumer advocate Ralph Nader's charges against the Chevrolet Corvair. Conducted by the National Highway Traffic Administration, the two-year study concluded that 1960-63 Covairs were at least as safe as other cars sold in the same period. • On July 22, 1990, American cyclist Greg LeMond wins his third Tour de France after leading the majority of the race. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.

• It was 19th-century French journalist, preacher and political activist Jean-Baptiste Henri-Dominique Lacordaire who made the following sage observation: "Neither genius, fame nor love show the greatness of the soul. Only kindness can do that." • Walt Disney wanted at first to use the name "Mickey Mouse Park" for what we now know as Disney World. • The first successful human organ transplant occurred in 1950. It was a kidney. • You might be surprised to learn that manatees have fingernails on their flippers. Flippernails, perhaps? • Thanks to the schedule of the American school system, U.S. sales of peanut butter increase dramatically in September and suffer an equally dramatic drop in June. • If you've ever gone to a shoe store and had your foot measured to determine length, width and arch length, you might be interested to learn that the gadget used to make such measurements is called a Brannock device. Charles F. Brannock, the son of a shoe industry entrepreneur, patented his first prototype in 1926, and his invention is still the industry standard. Some early models are even featured in the Smithsonian Institution. • In India of long ago, it was considered ideal for a man to be three times the age of his wife. • Those who study such things say that the younger you are, the longer your baths tend to be. • A friend of Sir Isaac Newton first came up with the symbol we use to represent the concept of infinity, but he originally meant it to mean a very small quantity. • Until 1836, the river that formed the border between the United States and Mexico was not the Rio Grande; it was the Colorado. *** Thought for the Day: "Criticism is prejudice made plausible." -- Henry Louis Mencken © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.


(Answers located 2 pages after this one)

• To keep the kids’ word skills fresh over the summer, we are playing sight word bingo practically every day now. It was really easy to make and laminate bingo cards. And I use the flash cards we got from school to “call” the words. Bingo is a win-win! — JoAnn • “In my house, we love straws. Because we’re into recycling, we make sure to get the most out of each one. I keep a small jar at the sink, where we rinse straws before setting them in the jar to dry. Reuse at will.” — F.O. in Pennsylvania • “Is there too much food left at the end of the party? When throwing a potluck, make sure you remind your guest to bring some take-home containers. Have them fix a few containers of “seconds” and store them in a big cooler by the front door. Hang a few take-out bags on the doorknob, and your pals won’t forget to take their goodies home!” — M.W. in Florida • Kids clamoring about whose turn it is? No fear. You’ve got the solution in your desk drawer. Simply write each child’s name on a self-stick note, and stack them. The kid on top takes the first turn, and then peels his or her name off and moves it to the bottom. Easy peasy. • Going on a road trip this summer? Check your tire pressure to save money. Maintaining the correct tire pressure can have a direct effect on how many miles you get to the gallon. It can save you in everyday driving, but it really adds up when traveling longer distances. Check your car’s manual for the correct pressure. Or, some cars have a sticker in the doorwell or glove box with that information. Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, c/o King Features Weekly Service, P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.


West Nile Virus Surveillance Grand Forks Health Department continues to trap and test local mosquitoes for West Nile virus (WNV). WNV is a serious disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Most people infected with this disease will have no symptoms or mild symptoms but this is a serious disease and can be fatal. The Grand Forks Public Health Department urges citizens to take personal precautions to avoid mosquito bites. The type of mosquito most common for transmitting WNV is present in our area and is most active from dusk until dawn. Please take the necessary measures to avoid mosquito bites.

The Grand Forks Health Department maintains an active mosquito surveillance program. The more we know about mosquitoes, the better equipped we are to control them. Our surveillance program is responsible for collecting, identifying, and conducting West Nile virus tests on mosquitoes. Traps are distributed throughout the community and the Information gained from these traps include:

Mosquito Population – Knowing the population helps us determine if it’s necessary to conduct citywide mosquito spraying. This information also enables us to measure the effectiveness of the mosquito spraying operations.

How do people get infected with WNV? Most people get infected with WNV by an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to humans and other animals. In a very small number of cases, West Nile virus has been spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.

Can I get West Nile virus directly from birds? There is no evidence that a person can get infected from handling live or dead infected birds. However, you should avoid bare-handed contact when handling any dead animal. If you must pick up a dead bird, use gloves or an inverted plastic bag to place the bird’s carcass (body) in a garbage bag.

Why do some states and local areas stop collecting dead birds to test for West Nile virus? West Nile virus is found in all 48 contiguous states (not in Alaska and Hawaii) and the virus circulates in mosquitoes and birds every year. Because West Nile virus is well established, some states and local jurisdictions are no longer collecting dead birds for testing. Instead, they have chosen to shift staff and funding resources away from testing of dead birds to other areas of West Nile virus surveillance and control.

Who is at risk for serious illness if infected with WNV? Serious illness can occur in people of any age. However, people over 60 years of age are at the greatest risk for severe disease. People with certain medical conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, and people who have received organ transplants, are also at greater risk for serious illness.

Species of Mosquitoes – There’s around 43 different species of mosquitoes in North Dakota. Some of these mosquitoes are just annoying pests, but one of them, the Culex tarsalis, is the most common mosquito for transmitting West Nile virus in North Dakota. This mosquito is prevalent in the Grand Forks region. Monitoring and testing the Culex tarsalis mosquito is important because it may enable us to respond to an elevated threat of West Nile virus before it infects the human population. This component of mosquito control is very important in reducing the risk of mosquito-borne disease in our community. Mosquito Activity – Knowing what times the mosquitoes are active is important for getting the best results from our spray operation. We use ultra-low volume sprayers that deliver very small droplets and only 1 ounce of a diluted, non-residual insecticide per acre. Because we’re using such a small amount of insecticide, timing is critical to be successful. This insecticide must directly impact mosquitoes, generally while in flight to be effective. Rotator traps are used to monitor the times the mosquitoes are most active. Gender Identification – Knowing the sex of the mosquito can be helpful in predicting a new hatch. Male mosquitoes hatch out before females. Therefore, if we see a spike in the number of male mosquitoes collected in our traps, we know there’s the potential for an increase of females soon to follow. That data is helpful in preparing us for a citywide spray. It’s a short warning to get ready. Traps used in mosquito surveillance programs are not successful in reducing mosquito populations. They are simply a surveillance tool used to collect data about the mosquitoes in our community.

For information about West Nile Virus and the Grand Forks mosquito control program visit our website at www.gfmosquito.com


MORE FARM FACTS

Tidbits continues to stroll around Old MacDonald’s Farm, discovering more facts about the barnyard. Of Grand fOrks • East Grand fOrks Published by Wick Publications

VOLUNTEERS United States Department of Agriculture

needed for a research study

Fish for HEALTH! The purpose of this study is to determine whether eating rainbow trout with different omega 3 levels reduces heart disease risk markers.

• Although California, Colorado, and Wyoming are the top producers of wool in the U.S., their combined total still only accounts for less than 1% of the world’s wool production. China is the largest producer. • Sheep and cow intestines have long been used to manufacture the strings of tennis racquets. Sometimes called catgut, it is created by drying the fibers of the intestine’s serous membrane, which contains natural collagen that provides the elasticity needed for the strings. However, nylon is now the most popular material because its cost is much lower, and its elasticity is better because of multi-filament strings.

Criteria for Participation: • 35-70 years old • Overweight • No tobacco, nicotine or e-cigarette use • No history of cardiovascular or metabolic disease Why We Need You?

We are seeking volunteers to participate in studies to improve our understanding of the health roles of foods and physical activity. Volunteers become essential partners in our research and are paid honoraria for their participation.

ScanSthiscan this

GRAND FORKS HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER

Sign up today for this ongoing study online at http://ars.usda.gov/pa/gfhnrc

Call 701-795-8396 or 1-800-562-4032 or scan the QR Code with your smart-phone

• An adult sheep produces between 7 and 10 lbs. of wool a year. That’s about enough to make a man’s suit. One pound of wool can be spun into 20 miles of yarn. The amount of wool that a sheep produces will vary depending upon its breed, genetics, nutrition, and how often it is sheared. Typically, a sheep is sheared just once a year. Wool from one sheep is called a fleece, while the wool from many is referred to as a clip.

*USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

• The turkey is the only poultry native to North America. Because domesticated turkeys have been bred to have large breasts for cooking purposes, they are top-heavy and unable to fly. However, wild turkeys can fly as fast as 55 mph and even roost in the treetops at night to avoid predators. Wild birds can also run up to a speed of 25 mph. The domestic bird will weigh about ...continued twice as much as the wild one.

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DIFFERENCES: 1. Bow is smaller. 2. Sleeve cuff is missing. 3. Cap is missing. 4. Book is reversed. 5. Mat is missing. 6. Cornerstone is missing. © 2015 King Features Synd., All rights reserved.

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BARNYARD (continued): • Are you familiar with all the terms associated with turkeys? That flap of skin that hangs over a turkey’s beak is known as a snood. BrightlyAnswer: Dell. colored fleshy bumps on a turkey’s head and A called VERYcaruncles. LARGE NUMBER throat are Both the snood and • caruncle Edward Kasner was a mathematician. In 1938 turn bright red when the bird becomes he was asked to come up with a name for of a frightened or agitated. The wattle, that flap very large number: the numeral one, followed skin under the turkey’s chin, also changes to by a hundred zeros. He asked his two young bright scarlet on a male in the midst of matnephews what name they would suggest. ing season. Although we frequently hear male • turkeys Nine-year-old Miltonthey suggested a name called “toms,” are also referred to out of the funnies. A cartoon strip character as “gobblers,” because of the distinctive noise named Barney was very popular. Milton chose they makelast to name announce presence to feBarney’s for thetheir number. males. A baby turkey is known as a poult or a • Kasner announced the new name for the big chick, and the female is the called a hen. number in of hiscourse, next book, altering spelling. • • Speaking of later, gobbling, addition the familSixty years LarryinPage and to Sergey Brin iar gobble, aa new maleinternet turkey search can make moreOther than developed engine. 30 different vocal sounds, including purrs, search engines searched each webpage and yelps, and times unique rankedand themkee-kees, accordingdistinctive to how many a specific to term appeared onby them, but Page and enough be recognized his fellow males. Brin designed search to search for A gobble can their be heard a engine mile away. Female the specific termmake and athen find out how many turkeys usually clicking noise. links there were that led back to that page, • Although thereinare moresearch than engine. 40 breeds of which resulted a better domesticated ducks, the most common is the • They decided they needed a name that white Pekin duck, brought to North reflected how many websites theAmerica search in the 1870s. Pekin chicks are born engine was searching. They tookwith the bright name yellow plumage and an orange and feet. A of Edward Kasner’s very largebill number, only farmer can expect an adult Pekin to lay about they misspelled it slightly, so it ended up being spelled the of cartoon 200 eggsexactly per yearthe oversame theirway lifespan about Barney spelled his last What’s 9character to 12 years. They are also the name. most popular it called? (Answer page) duck consumed foratitsbottom meat, of comprising 95% FACTS of all duck COMPUTER meat eaten in the U.S. • In 1981 Bill Gates said, “640 kb of memory ought for anybody.” A pig and a chicken were walking by a Tidbittos be enough hs Laug church where a large charity event was • Moore’s Law states that computer performance taking place. Swept up by enthusiasm, the doubles every 18 to 24 months, and ever since pig suggested to the chicken that they each 1971, this has been true. make a contribution. • HP, Google, Microsoft, and Apple were all "Great idea!" chicken cried, "Let's offer them ham and eggs!" started in The garages. "Not so fast," said thefrom pig, quite annoyed. "For you that's a conAnswer: Google, googol. tribution. For me it's a total commitment."

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