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Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks Published by: Wick Publications 701-772-8239 TIDBITS® GETS

How do you get there? Sharon Opdahl, Agent Sharon 2534 17thOpdahl Avenue South Grand Forks, ND 58201 Agent Bus: 701-746-0495

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VACCINES

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On March 6, 1810, Massachusetts enacted the first state legislation requiring vaccination. It required every town to choose three people to superintend the inoculation of all inhabitants with the cowpox vaccine. Come along with Tidbits as we get vaccinated! SMALLPOX ERADICATED • In George Washington's day, one out of every five people in London bore the scars of smallpox. George Washington himself did, although he's usually portrayed with clear skin. One out of every 3 children died of smallpox before their third birthday. • In the 1700s European people realized that if you recovered from smallpox, you would never get the disease again. Whenever a person came down with a mild, survivable form of smallpox, it was fashionable to organize smallpox parties. Friends and relatives would gather together in one house in order to catch the mild form of the disease together, and thus become immune to more deadly strains. • In that day, milkmaids were well-known for their clear, unpocked skin. It was common for milkmaids to catch cowpox from the animals they were milking, and an old wive's tale said that people who had cowpox would never catch smallpox. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a

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Quiz Bits

4. What U.S. president fell victim to smallpox during his presidency and was quarantined until he recovered? 5. What percent of smallpox victims died of the disease? 6. The Latin word for this animal is the root of the word ‘vaccine.’ 7. What was the original title of the 1963 Beatles’ song “I Saw Her Standing There”?

?

1. As of 2012, how many countries worldwide still reported cases of polio? 2. In what year were smallpox vaccinations discontinued in the U.S. due to absence of the disease? 3. What state currently has the highest percentage of parents who fail to immunize their kindergarten children?

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SMALLPOX (continued): • An English doctor named Edward Jenner was the first person to realize that people who had suffered from the relatively mild sickness called cowpox were immune to smallpox. • Jenner first tested his vaccine in 1796. At that time, about one out of every ten people in England died of smallpox. He inoculated an 8-yearold boy with weakened cowpox germs. Six weeks later, he inoculated the boy with smallpox. The boy did not come down with smallpox. He was immune. • The idea of vaccination had heavy opposition at first, but began to catch on after Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Cotton Mather, and Napoleon Bonaparte endorsed the idea. Napoleon had all of his troops inoculated. • Thanks to vaccination, the last known case of smallpox was reported in 1977. THE STORY OF LOUIS • In the late 1800's, a doctor named Louis was doing experiments with chicken cholera. To infect the birds, he grew pure strains of the cholera germs in his laboratory. One day by mistake he injected some chickens with cholera germs that had been sitting in a flask all summer long. He was surprised when the chickens did not get sick. He was even more surprised when he injected the chickens with a fresh, virulent strain of cholera and they still did not get sick. Putting two and two together, Louis knew he had just discovered a vaccination for cholera. • Next he experimented with anthrax. Again, an accident intervened. A thermometer in an incubator was off kilter, though he didn't know it. He wondered why animals injected with anthrax did not come down with the disease— and then he found he'd been getting the germs too hot. Experiments showed that if he heated the anthrax germs before injecting them, the animal would become immune. But veterinarians refused to believe him.

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LOUIS (continued): • Frustrated, Louis challenged veterinarians to attend a public demonstration. All manner of newspapermen, scientists, and doctors attended the test. Two groups of 25 sheep were collected on a farm outside Paris. Louis vaccinated only one group. Two weeks later, all 50 sheep were injected with a powerful strain of anthrax. After two days, all of the vaccinated sheep were fine. And all of the unvaccinated sheep were either dead or dying. • Still, Louis wondered how the anthrax was spread from animal to animal. Talking with a shepherd one day, he noticed a piece of the pasture grass was a different color in one spot. The shepherd told him that it was where some anthrax-infected sheep had been buried the previous year. Examining the plot, Louis noticed worm droppings, which he took home and examined under the microscope. They were teeming with anthrax, which they had brought to the surface from the buried carcasses. Louis further reduced anthrax by advising people to burn anthrax infested animals rather than bury them. • Next Louis turned his attention to a dreaded disease of humans— rabies. Although he was unable to see the rabies germs through his microscope, he was able to prove they were there by transplanting drops of spinal fluid from rabid rabbits to healthy rabbits. The healthy rabbits would soon have rabies too. To make a vaccine, he removed the spinal cords of rabid rabbits and hung them to dry in sterile flasks. His first vaccination was done on a dog. He ground up a spinal cord that had been drying for two weeks, and injected it into the dog. The next day he injected a spinal cord that had been drying for 13 days, the next day one that was 12 days old, and so on. After 14 daily injections, the dog was given a dose of fullstrength rabies virus. The dog remained healthy.


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LOUIS (continued): • Shortly afterward, a young boy who had been badly bitten by a rabid dog was brought to Louis. Louis had only tried his vaccine out on a single dog and was reluctant to try it on a human. But the boy's mother was certain he would die without help. Louis administered his new vaccine, and the boy was saved. The news hit the papers and the world rejoiced to see the end of a dreaded disease. The boy grew up and became Louis's assistant. In 1940, he committed suicide rather than unlock Louis' crypt to the invading Nazi army.

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• Louis was a great scientist and performed many other medical services for humankind. Yet he's remembered best for discovering that germs in milk cause disease— but if the milk is heated first, the germs are killed. This process is called pasteurization, after the inventor: his full name was Louis Pasteur.

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• Because 3 of his 5 children died in infancy due to disease, Pasteur was inspired to spend his life trying to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. By the time Louis Pasteur died in 1895 at the age of 72, he had already saved countless lives through his discoveries.

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MOMENTS IN TIME • On March 15, 44 B.C, Gaius Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, is stabbed to death in the Roman Senate house by 60 conspirators, who believed that his death would lead to the restoration of the Roman Republic. However, the result was to plunge Rome into a fresh round of civil wars, destroying the republic forever. • On March 11, 1888, one of the worst blizzards in U.S. history strikes the Northeast, dumping up to 55 inches of snow in some areas. In New York City, drifts reached the second story of some buildings and stranded passengers on elevated trains. Enterprising residents with ladders offered to rescue passengers for a fee. • On March 14, 1919, Max Brand, perhaps the most prolific writer of Western stories, publishes his first novel, "The Untamed." Max Brand was one of 21 pen names used by Seattle-born author Frederick Faust. Unlike many Western authors, Faust made no pretense to historical accuracy in his works. • On March 10, 1926, "Lolly Willowes," the first Book-of-the-Month

The History Channel

Club's 4,000-plus members were not pleased with the tale of a spinster who takes up witchcraft, as the author was an openly gay woman. • On March 12, 1930, Indian independence leader Mohandas Gandhi begins a defiant march to the sea in protest of the British monopoly on salt. Britain's Salt Acts prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt, a staple in the Indian diet. By picking one salt crystal off the shore, Gandhi had committed nonviolent civil disobedience. • On March 13, 1969, "The Love Bug," a Walt Disney movie about the adventures of a Volkswagen Beetle named Herbie, opens in theaters. The film centered on a down-on-hisluck auto racer who goes on a winning streak after teaming up with Herbie. • On March 9, 1985, the first-ever Adopt-a-Highway sign is erected on Texas's Highway 69. The highway was adopted by the Tyler Civitan Club, which committed to picking up trash along a designated 2-mile stretch of the road. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.

HOLLYWOOD HYPE • When Jack Warner (of Warner Bros.) was overseeing the making of the film "The Story of Louis Pasteur" his advisers grumbled that it was "just the story of a milkman" and wanted to discard the original script. They suggested instead that it be made into a love story where Pasteur is portrayed as a student in love with the medical school dean's daughter. They further suggested that at the end of the film a voice-over could announce, "And to this day, housewives all over the world are grateful to this man, because he invented pasteurized milk." Paul Muni, who was playing the lead, objected so strenuously that the idea was scrapped and the original script was filmed. For his efforts, Muni won an Academy Award for Best Actor in 1936. Nurse: "Doctor, there's an invisible Tidbits Laughs man in the waiting room." Doctor: "Tell him I can't see him right now."


NOTEWORTHY INVENTORS:

JONAS SALK

• Jonas Salk was born in 1914 in New York City. After attending the New York University School of Medicine, he decided to go into medical research instead of becoming a physician. He accepted a job at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine where his goal was to discover how many different types of polio virus existed. • At the time, polio was one of the worst public health problems in the U.S. It was especially tragic because most victims were children. Polio, first described in 1835, grew steadily more prominent as the years passed. The virus is transmitted by fecal matter, mucus, and saliva. Once in the body, it travels to the brain or spinal cord where it causes paralysis of varying degrees. • Polio didn't receive national attention until 1921 when Franklin D. Roosevelt was struck down by the disease at the age of 39. He spent the rest of his life in a wheelchair because of it, and ended up founding the March of Dimes to help fund research for a vaccine. • Salk's research led him to begin experimenting with a polio vaccine. Although there was already a vaccine available for polio, the vaccine used living but weakened strains of polio, which sometimes ended up infecting the vaccinated person with the very disease it was designed to prevent. Salk was the first to experiment with a vaccine that used polio virus strains which had been killed before being administered so there was no way for the vaccine to cause the illness. Salk's wife and three sons were among the first volunteers to be inoculated with his vaccine. • Over the course of seven years, Salk involved 20,000 doctors and health care workers, 64,000 public school workers, 220,000 volunteers, and nearly 2 million school kids in his trials of his new 'killed' vaccine.

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BUSY. BUSY. BUSY. BUSY. BUSY. Sharon Opdahl, Agent Sharon 2534 17thOpdahl Avenue South Grand Forks, ND 58201 Agent Bus: 701-746-0495 sharonopdahl.com

Life insurance shouldn’t wait. Even though life is busy, take a moment to reflect on what’s

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Life insurance shouldn’t wait. Even though life is busy, take a moment to reflect on what’s

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TIDBITS® BEATING by Janet Spencer

On September 11, 1952, the first artificial aortic valve was installed in a patient in Washington, D.C. Come along with Tidbits as we take a look at the human heart!

HEART ATTACK FACTS • 37% of all deaths in the United States are related to heart disease, making it the largest single cause of natural death. Heart disease kills twice as many people as all forms of cancer combined. The major causes are smoking, fatty diet, high blood pressure, obesity, stress, heredity, lack of exercise, and diabetes. It is an illness produced of man's environment. Before 1900, heart attacks were very rare. The rate of heart disease increased so sharply between 1940 and 1967 that the World Health Organization called it the world’s most serious epidemic. • Every single cell in the heart is guided by an electrical impulse which synchronizes the heartbeat so all muscle cells contract in unison to pump the blood. During a heart attack, the cells begin firing out of turn so the efficiency of the heart is lost and the blood does not get pumped. When doctors shock the heart, the shock overrides each cell’s individual firing mechanism and once again synchronizes every cell, hopefully getting them all to work together again. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a

Anything else is a compromise

Call 1.800.523.3096 (U.S.) 1.866.631.1567 (CAN)

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Issue # 884

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by Janet Spencer

HEART ATTACK FACTS • 37% of all deaths in the United States are related to heart disease, making it the largest single cause of natural death. Heart disease kills twice as many people as all forms of cancer combined. The major causes are smoking, fatty diet, high blood pressure, obesity, stress, heredity, lack of exercise, and diabetes. It is an illness produced of man's environment. Before 1900, heart attacks were very rare. The rate of heart disease increased so sharply between 1940 and 1967 that the World Health Organization called it the world’s most serious epidemic. • Every single cell in the heart is guided by an electrical impulse which synchronizes the heartbeat so all muscle cells contract in unison to pump the blood. During a heart attack, the cells begin firing out of turn so the efficiency of the heart is lost and the blood does not get pumped. When doctors shock the heart, the shock overrides each cell’s individual firing mechanism and once again synchronizes every cell, hopefully getting them all to work together again. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a

Anything else is a compromise

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JONAS SALK (continued): • Meantime, polio was raging. In 1952, nearly 60,000 cases were reported in the U.S., killing over 3,000 people and leaving over 20,000 survivors with some form of paralysis. Polio killed more people that year than any other communicable disease. • When the success of the new vaccine was officially announced on April 12, 1955, Salk was instantly hailed as a hero, becoming a national celebrity overnight. When he was asked in a televised interview who owned the patent to the vaccine, Salk replied: "There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?" • According to one historian, the announcement led to widespread celebration: "People observed moments of silence, rang bells, honked horns, blew factory whistles, fired salutes, took the rest of the day off, closed their schools, drank toasts, hugged children, attended church, smiled at strangers, and forgave enemies." • By the summer of 1957, 100 million vaccines had been distributed throughout the United States. By 1962, polio was nearly extinct, with only 910 cases reported that year. Today, global vaccination efforts by organizations such as UNICEF and the World Health Organization have almost completely eradicated polio from the planet. • The World Health Organization estimates that there are between 10 to 20 million polio survivors worldwide. In 1977 there were 254,000 persons living in the United States who had been paralyzed by polio. As one of the largest disabled groups in the world, polio survivors helped spur the modern disability rights movement through campaigns for the social and civil rights of the disabled. • Jonas Salk subsequently spent many years researching a vaccine for HIV. In 1960, he founded the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. He died from heart failure at the age of 80 on June 23, 1995.

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RABIES

• The word 'rabies' comes from the Latin word meaning madness. Because the virus infects the spinal cord and brain of its victims, it causes raging insanity, followed by paralysis. Victims die of respiratory failure. • Globally, 90% of rabies cases start with the bite of a rabid dog. However, in the U.S., only 5% of rabies cases come from dogs because rabies vaccines are so widely available.

• Worldwide, an estimated 26,000 people died from rabies in 2010, down from 54,000 in 1990. The majority of the deaths occurred in Asia and Africa. India has the highest rate of human rabies, primarily because of stray dogs, whose number has greatly increased since a 2001 law forbade the killing of dogs. • Over the past 10 years, rabies has killed only a total of 28 people in the U.S.

Answer

• The Dalai Lama likes to repair watches as a way to relax. • Before modern medical techniques became common, it was not unusual for people to be inadvertently buried alive. In 1819, the Doctor Regent of the Faculty of Medicine in Paris estimated that one-third to one-half of people who died in bed were, in fact, still alive when they were interred. This led to the invention of the "security coffin," which was connected to a monitoring station by a long tube. If the presumed corpse did regain consciousness, food and drink could be transported through the tube while the coffin was exhumed. • In ancient China, snail shells were used as currency. *** Thought for the Day: "Good humor is a tonic for mind and body. It is the best antidote for anxiety and depression. It is a business asset. It attracts and keeps friends. It lightens human burdens. It is the direct route to serenity and contentment." -- Grenville Klieser

Weekly SUDOKU

• Though they seemingly have little in common, early 20thcentury American politician William Jennings Bryan and 19th-century French author Honore de Balzac seemed to share a distrust of great wealth. Bryan observed, "No one can earn a million dollars honestly," and Balzac, echoing that sentiment, stated, "Behind every great fortune there is a crime." • A single speck of blood contains around 5 million red blood cells. • You might be surprised to learn that ebooks are not a recent phenomenon; back in 1971 a man named Michael S. Hart began to digitize printed works, typing them in by hand. His first project -- The Declaration of Independence. • Woodrow Wilson is the only U.S. president who held a Ph.D. • With a height of 321 feet, the Memphis Pyramid, completed in 1991, is the largest pyramid in the Americas, and the sixthlargest in the world.

Answer

by Samantha Weaver

• Because the rabies virus is transmitted through saliva, the virus survives by making sure that the saliva is loaded with infection and that the animal is driven to bite whatever it comes in contact with. To ensure the saliva is thoroughly infected, the throat muscles are paralyzed, which prevents the animal from swallowing (which would dilute the virus). Attempts to drink water in spite of raging thirst cause painful spasms of the muscles in the throat and larynx. Infected animals therefore foam at the mouth because they cannot swallow, and they show a fear of water. This is why rabies has also been called "hydrophobia" meaning "fear of water."

King CROSSWORD

© 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.

• Rabies can’t go through unbroken skin. People can get rabies only via a bite from a rabid animal or through scratches, abrasions, or mucous membranes in contact with saliva or brain tissue from a rabid animal. The rabies virus is short-lived when exposed to open air. It can only survive in saliva and dies when the animal’s saliva dries up.


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RABIES (continued): • About 400 to 500 domestic pets are infected with rabies every year in the U.S. Surprisingly, cats get rabies more often than dogs. In 2010, 303 Answer: Dell. cats got rabies, versus only 69 dogs. 90% of all A VERY LARGE rabies cases reported come NUMBER from wild animals. • Edward Kasner was a mathematician. In bites, 1938 • Most U.S. deaths now result from bat he was asked to come up with a name for a which may go unnoticed by the victim and very large number: the numeral one, followed remain untreated. Rabid bats are in all by a hundred zeros. He asked hisfound two young 48 contiguous Otherwould animals most comnephews whatstates. name they suggest. monly infected include raccoons, skunks, and • Nine-year-old Milton suggested a name foxes. Small rodents, rabbits, and possums out of the funnies. A cartoon strip character rarely rabies. namedget Barney was very popular. Milton chose Barney’s nameconfined for the number. • Rabies is alast disease to mammals. Birds get rabies, but they don'tname showfor symptoms • can Kasner announced the new the big and always survive. number in his next book, altering the spelling. Sixty years Larry Page and Sergey Brin • • Agencies in later, Canada, France, Switzerland developed a combat new internet engine. Other successfully rabiessearch by air-dropping bait search engines searched each webpage and that is infused with rabies vaccine. Wild foxes ranked them according to how many times and raccoons eat the bait and inoculate them-a specificSwitzerland term appeared on virtually them, butrabies-free Page and selves. is now Brin designed their search engine to search for after leaving chicken heads laced with vaccine the specific term and then find out how many out forthere foxeswere to eat.that led back to that page, links which resulted in a better search engine. • The incubation period usually lasts from three weeks to three months but can stretch to • They decided they needed a nameoutthat one to five how years before first symptoms apreflected many the websites the search pear, depending on how They long ittook takesthe the name virus engine was searching. of migrate EdwardtoKasner’s verysystem. large number, only to the nervous After sympthey misspelled it slightly,the so itaverage ended up being toms present themselves, survival spelled same time untilexactly death isthe about fourway days.the cartoon character Barney spelled his last name. What’s • Ifit acalled? person(Answer exposedattobottom rabies of undergoes page) rabies treatment immediately, survival is almost cerCOMPUTER FACTS tainly guaranteed. But if the victim waits until • symptoms In 1981 Bill “640 kb of ismemory setGates in, thesaid, mortality rate nearly ought to be enough for anybody.” 100%. Some people with rabies have been • saved Moore’s that computer by Law beingstates put into an inducedperformance coma until doubles every 18 to 24 months, and ever since their body was able to combat the disease. 1971, this has been true. • Today a series of rabies shots – which used to • HP, Google, Microsoft, and Apple were all entail 20 painfully deep injections into the abstarted in garages. domen – now consists of four not-very-painful Answer: shots inGoogle, the arm.from googol.

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Tidbits Grand Forks - March 5, 2015  

"Vaccines," "Jonas Salk" and "Rabies"

Tidbits Grand Forks - March 5, 2015  

"Vaccines," "Jonas Salk" and "Rabies"

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