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Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks

August 14, 2014

Published by: Wick Publications

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TIDBITS EXPLODES WITH FACTS ON

MOUNT VESUVIUS

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How do you 2534 17th Ave. S. • Suite F Sharon Opdahl, Agent get there? 2534 17th Avenue South Grand Forks, ND 58201 Grand Forks, ND 58201 701-746-0495 Bus: 701-746-0495 sharonopdahl.com sharonopdahl.com Your good neighbor has a roadmap just for you. Does planning for your retirement leave you feeling a bit lost? I can get you headed in the right direction. Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there. CALL ME TODAY. ®

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• Mount Vesuvius is mainland Europe’s only active volcano, the only one to have erupted within the last 100 years. (The island of Sicily is home to Mount Etna, which is Europe’s most active volcano, having experienced a series of eruptions since 2001.)

• The most lava ever recorded from an eruption from Vesuvius was in 1906. Italy was preparing for the 1908 Summer Olympics when the disaster occurred, causing extensive damage to the city of Naples and killing more than 100 people. Because Italy did not have the funds to rebuild Naples, the Olympics were switched to London. Call 1.800.523.3096 (U.S.) 1.866.631.1567 (CAN)

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• Vesuvius is a strato volcano, because it has explosive eruptions as well as pyroclastic flows. This means it emits a fast-moving current of hot gas and rock that can reach a speed of up to 450 mph and reach a temperature of 1,830 degrees F. Vesuvius was formed from the collision of two tectonic plates. Volcanoes are usually found where plates are either moving away from each other or colliding.

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August 24 has been named Vesuvius Day, making this week a good time to take a closer look at this famous volcano and a few other notable ones. Follow along as Tidbits brings you these explosive facts.

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Quiz Bits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. What was the name of the town in the movie “Back to the Future”? 7. Who produced the first vaccine Name the Roman god whose name for rabies? gives us the word “volcano.” 8. What 1980s TV sitcom featured Which country has the most the Seaver family? active volcanoes? 9. Which artist made the song “Hit What name is given to volcanoes the Road, Jack” famous? 10. How many times did the U.S. that have no magma supply? send manned missions that Which Hawaiian island is home successfully landed on the moon? to the volcano Mauna Loa? What’s the name for very light porous TRIVIA rock formed from solidified lava?

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MOUNT VESUVIUS (continued): • Most folks know that Mount Vesuvius destroyed the city of Pompeii in 79 A.D., with a death toll estimated at 16,000. The cloud of volcanic ash reached heights of 20.5 miles and a flow of molten rock and pumice at a rate of 1.5 million tons per second. The rapidly-falling ash made it difficult to breathe with millions of tons quickly burying the city, resulting in a well-preserved scene of the ancient city’s life. Strangely enough, pockets of air within the ash hardened around the victims, enabling excavators to pour plaster into the openings forming a mold for the remains. The ruins were discovered in 1748 by a surveying engineer during the digging of a water line. Excavation on the ruins began, with archaeologists finding loaves of bread and jars of fruit preserves still intact. The project has continued for more than 260 years, the longest continually excavated site in the world. • About 250 years into the excavation of Pompeii, nearly 1,050 casts had been created from impressions of bodies found in the ash. It’s believed that nearly one-third of the city still lies buried. In 1980, 300 more bodies were found in nearby Herculaneum. • One eyewitness account survived from the 79 A.D. eruption of Vesuvius, that of Pliny the Younger, who observed the tragedy from across the Bay of Naples. Pliny, a Roman statesman, documented the details of the death of his uncle, who was attempting to rescue people during the early stages of the eruption. Pliny later interviewed survivors and recorded the information in letters to his historian friend. Those who study volcanoes use the term “Plinian” to refer to large volcanic eruptions in which streams of gas and ash are violently sent to a height of several miles.

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SPORTS QUIZ 1. Which was the last Major League Baseball division to finish a season with no teams having a losing record? 2. Who was the last major-league rookie to win a regular-season Most Valuable Player Award? (hint: A.L.) 3. Name the quarterback who holds the Tampa Bay Buccaneers record for most touchdown passes in a season?

4. Which No. 16 seed took No. 1 seed Michigan State into overtime before losing in the men’s NCAA basketball tournament in 1990? 5. The New York Rangers set a regular-season franchise record in 2013-14 for most road victories. How many? 6. Which is the only Grand Slam event tennis star Serena Williams has not won in consecutive years? 7. What was the last NBA franchise to move to a new city?

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MOUNT VESUVIUS (continued): • There have been many eruptions since the annihilation of Pompeii, at least once every century, although none has been as large as the 79 A.D. eruption. Vesuvius erupted at least six times in the 12th and 18th centuries, and eight times during the 1800s. The 20th century experienced three eruptions with the most recent in 1944, when a two-week-long eruption occurred. American airmen were stationed at the Pompeii Airfield during World War II, a few miles from the base of the volcano, and fled when the eruption began, leaving behind 88 aircraft, all of which were a total loss. Twelve lives were lost as a result of this eruption. • Today the slopes of Vesuvius are covered with heavy vegetation and shrubs, and vineyards have been planted. Although its current activity seems to produce nothing but occasional steam from vents at the bottom of the crater, geologists who study the mountain maintain that it is a very dangerous volcano that will erupt again. Because it is the most densely-populated volcanic region in the world, with more than 3 million people living within 20 miles of the crater, an eruption today will be much more devastating than previous ones. While the 79 A.D. eruption destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum, many cities would now be buried, including Naples, which is Europe’s 9th most populated urban area and Italy’s 4th largest urban economy. • In 1995, the Italian government officially declared the area around the volcano a national park, thereby prohibiting further building in an attempt to reduce the population in the danger zone. They have demolished illegally constructed buildings and even offered financial incentives to citizens for moving away.

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WEST NILE VIRUS RISK FACTORS West Nile virus (WNV) is an infection transmitted by mosquitoes. The mosquito most common for transmitting this virus is one that is widespread throughout the Grand Forks region. This mosquito does not discriminate. People of all ages are susceptible to WNV infection, but the elderly are at higher risk for developing the more severe form of this disease (neuroinvasive illness). Children infected with WNV generally show no symptoms or may have a mild fever. A human case of West Nile virus was recently reported in N.D.

Repellents: Still One of the Best Ways to Prevent Mosquito Bites Unfortunately, there’s no easy solution to controlling mosquitoes. The more rain and standing water we have, the more mosquito habitat available for those pesky critters. The start of the 2014 mosquito season has been hot and wet thereby producing a healthy hatch of skeeters. Eliminating mosquito breeding sites is essential to keeping the mosquito population in check. When the adult mosquito population seems unbearable, turn to one of the best prevention methods available…a can of OFF! Mosquito repellents with DEET are safe and very effective when applied according to the label. They’ve even improved many of these products so they go on dry, not oily. Don’t let these pesky critters win the outdoor battle this summer. Eliminate any standing water on your property and apply repellents with DEET when outdoors.

Number of Cases

North Dakota - West Nile Virus Cases By Date 2002 - 2013

Weekly Data 2002 - 2013 Total Human Cases in ND - 1,512

Risk factors for West Nile virus: • Time of year – The majority of WNV cases occur from July – September. • Geographic region – The Dakotas have reported some of the highest cases per capita in the United States. • Time spent outdoors not wearing protective clothing and mosquito repellent – If you work or spend a lot of time outdoors (golfing, gardening, hunting, etc.), you’re at a higher risk of being bitten by mosquitoes. • Proximity – If you live in an area where WNV has already been identified or near mosquito larval habitat. • If you have a weakened immune system. The best way to prevent West Nile virus infection is to avoid mosquito bites. • Use mosquito-repellent products containing DEET. • Wear long sleeves and pants. • Eliminate any standing water from your property, such as trash bins, plant saucers, rain gutters, buckets, etc.

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MOUNT VESUVIUS (continued): • Tourists are allowed access by road to 660 feet of Vesuvius’ summit, and a spiral walkway continues around the mountain from there to the crater.

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MOMENTS IN TIME • On Aug. 19, 1812, the U.S. Navy frigate Constitution defeats the British frigate Guerrière in an engagement off the coast of Nova Scotia. The British shot merely bounced off the Constitution's sides, as if the ship were made of iron rather than wood. The bolts fastening the timbers and copper sheathing on "Old Ironsides" were provided by Paul Revere. • On Aug. 23, 1904, Harold D. Weed of Canastota, New York, is issued U.S. Patent No. 768,495 for his "Grip-Tread for Pneumatic Tires," a tire chain to be used on automobiles to increase traction on roads slick with mud, snow or ice. • On Aug. 20, 1911, a dispatcher in the New York Times office sends the first telegram around the world to determine how fast a commercial message could be sent. After it traveled more than 28,000 miles, relayed by 16 different operators, the reply was received by the same operator 16 1/2 minutes later. • On Aug. 21, 1920, Daphne Milne, wife of writer A.A. Milne, gives birth to a son the couple names Christopher Robin Milne. Christopher Robin was immortalized in A.A.

The History Channel

Milne's books "Winnie-the-Pooh" and "The House at Pooh Corner." • On Aug. 18, 1958, Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" is published in the U.S. The novel, about a man's obsession with a 12-year-old girl, had been rejected by four publishers before G.P. Putnam's Sons accepted it. • On Aug. 24, 1969, Company A of the Third Battalion, 196th Light Infantry Brigade refuses the order of its commander, Lt. Eugene Schurtz, Jr., to continue an attack near Da Nang, Vietnam, because they had "simply had enough." Schurtz was relieved of his command and transferred. Neither he nor his men were ever disciplined. • On Aug. 22, 1992, the second day of a standoff at Randy Weaver's Ruby Ridge cabin in Idaho, FBI sharpshooter Lon Horiuchi wounds Weaver and kills his unarmed wife, Vicki, as she holds their baby daughter. In 1997, Horiuchi was charged with involuntary manslaughter in the death, but a federal judge dismissed the charge, citing the alleged immunity of federal officers.

• Scientists consider a volcano to be active if it has erupted within the last 10,000 years. There are about 1,500 worldwide that meet this criteria, with most along the Pacific Ring of Fire. About 50 erupt each year. More than 160 volcanoes in the United States fit in the active category, the majority of those in the Cascade Range, stretching from southern British Columbia to northern California. • Indonesia has 130 active volcanoes, including Mount Tambora, responsible for the most violent eruption in recorded history, In 1815, Tambora’s eruption resulted in an estimated 71,000 deaths in an explosion heard more than 1,200 miles away. It produced such climate-changing effects that 1816 was known as “the year without a summer.” Indonesia’s Mt. Krakatoa erupted in 1883, killing 36,000 and destroying two-thirds of the island. It has erupted as recently as 2008. • Geologists consider Mt. Rainier “potentially the most dangerous” mainland U.S. volcano, with 3.2 million people living in its vicinity, although it hasn’t erupted since the 1840s. Also within the Cascade Range, Mt. St. Helen’s 1980 eruption was one of the U.S.’s worst, killing 57. It reawakened in 2004 with four explosions sending steam and ash 10,000 feet above its crater. • There are five active volcanoes in Hawaii. Kilauea is one of the world’s most frequently active volcanoes, having erupted 62 times in 245 years. It has been erupting continuously since 1983. Mauna Loa has erupted 15 times since 1900, most recently in 1984.

© 2014 King Features Synd., Inc.

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Place a number in the empty boxes in such a way that each row across, each column down and each small 9-box square contains all of the numbers from one to nine.

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Challenging HOO BOY!

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FAMOUS CANADIANS:

DONALD SUTHERLAND

• A stream of steady roles has continued for decades for Sutherland, including Cold Mountain, Pride & Prejudice, and The Italian Job. Although he is nearing 80, his popularity remains, as evidenced most recently by his appearance in The Hunger Games films as President Snow.

We’ve seen him as an alien hunter, a Civil War General, astronaut, a reverend, villain, and loving father. Let’s examine the 50+ year career of famous Canadian Donald Sutherland. • Born in Saint John, New Brunswick, Sutherland was a sickly child, struggling with rheumatic fever, hepatitis, and polio myelitis. He spent many of his younger years in Nova Scotia, with his first part-time job there as a radio announcer at age 14. While in high school, Sutherland appeared in a few stage productions, carrying this interest on at the University of Toronto. He graduated with a double major, engineering and drama, with intentions of a career as an engineer, however, changed his mind and headed for London in 1957 to attend that city’s Academy of Music and Dramatic Art.

• Sutherland has frequently been cast in the role of a villain. At one point, when being considered for a great role, he was told by the producers, “Sorry, you’re the best actor, but this part calls for a guynext-door type. You don’t look as if you’ve ever lived next door to anyone.”

• Sutherland had his first role in a 1963 British film, and after several other small parts, he landed a major role in 1967. After another actor had dropped out of the filming of The Dirty Dozen, Sutherland was offered the part in the popular film which was the fifth highest grossing film of the year. Two years later, he was once again a soldier in both the smash hit M*A*S*H (as Hawkeye Pierce) and Kelly’s Heroes, along with Clint Eastwood. His career received another boost in 1971 with his role as a private detective opposite Jane Fonda in Klute, and as a grieving father in the Oscar-winning Ordinary People in 1980.

• Sutherland has paid tribute to his favorite directors by naming his sons after them. Kiefer is named after Warren Kiefer who directed Sutherland in his first feature film. His son Roeg takes his name from director Nicolas Roeg, while Rossif is named after French director Frederic Rossif. The middle name of Sutherland’s son Angus is Redford after Robert Redford.

• Sutherland made an error in judgment in 1978 when picked to star as Professor Dave Jennings in National Lampoon’s Animal House. He was offered the choice of a salary of $40,000 up front or a percentage of the film’s income. Because he doubted the success factor of the movie, he chose the $40,000, and Animal House went on to gross $141,600,000.

• Sutherland has remained a Canadian citizen and maintains a home in Quebec. He was one of the flagbearers at the opening ceremonies of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. He is an officer in the Order of Canada, Canada’s highest civilian honor.

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• Although he has had more than 150 roles in various productions over 50 years, Sutherland has never received an Oscar. He has won an Emmy, Golden Globes, and stars on both the Hollywood and Canadian Walks of Fame.

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PAUL BUNYAN

August 10 is the date set aside to honor Paul Bunyan, the lumberjack of legend. Is this giant fact or fiction? We’ll probably never know! • Several places have laid claim as the birthplace of Paul Bunyan, including Michigan, Maine, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and St. Eustache, Canada. Some tales are entirely imaginary, such as the myth that it took five storks to bring Bunyan to the world, and that he was nearly 8 feet tall (2.4 m) with a stride of 7 feet (2.1 m). One of the more logical tales tells of the role of lumberjacks in Canada’s 1837 Papineau Rebellion. When French Canadians in the St. Lawrence River region rebelled against their new ruler, the Queen of England, many loggers armed with axes stepped up to battle English troops. A tall, bearded, bellowing man amongst the loggers, became famous for his part in the battle.

by Samantha Weaver

• Mary Todd Lincoln's half-sister, Emily Todd, was married to Confederate Gen. Benjamin Helm. When her husband died in 1863, Emily crossed Union lines to visit her sister in the White House. Newspapers in the North created a furor over incident, speculating that the general's widow could be a spy. After taking an oath of loyalty to the Union, Emily Helm was granted amnesty.

• If you're like 37 percent of Americans, you feel a sense of satisfaction when you finish vacuuming. If you're like the rest of us, you just hope the kids wait a few hours before spilling cereal on the carpet again.

• According to historians, Roman emperor Caligula once declared war on Neptune, the god of the sea. After his soldiers ran into the ocean and stabbed at the water, Caligula declared victo• John Lennon appeared ry and ordered the men to colon the first cover of Roll- lect seashells as war trophies. ing Stone magazine. * * * • Do you go to action mov- Thought for the Day: "In ies just to see the car chases? the end, everything is a Here's a real-life doozy for you: gag." -- Charlie Chaplin In 2002, after a bank robbery in © 2014 King Features Synd., Inc.

Answer

• The original Mickey and Minnie Mouse were voiced by Wayne Allwine and Russi Taylor. The human pair also were married in real life.

Weekly SUDOKU

• Those who study such things say that of all teenagers who wear braces, at least 60 percent have matched the rubber bands on their brackets to their outfits.

• Tales of Bunyan’s heroics were told around loggers’ campfires for years to come, each one being embellished a bit more. By the 1880s, there wasn’t a logging camp that didn’t know the story of the giant. In 1910, writer James MacGillvray, who had worked in a Michigan camp, put the accounts on paper in the Detroit News Tribune. In 1914, the Red River Lumber Company of Minneapolis used the image of a giant lumberjack and created a colossal blue ox as his companion in an advertising pamphlet. Over 100,000 of the brochures were distributed and Bunyan’s popularity grew. A 1924 collection of tales by Esther Shephard and another anthology the following year by James Stevens fueled the fire of the legend. Famed poet Carl Sandburg wrote that Bunyan lived “around the hot stoves of winter, among socks and mittens drying, in the smell of tobacco smoke and the roar of laughter mocking the outside weather.”

Answer

Wrestedt, Germany, the culprits led law-enforcement officials on a 620-mile chase through several countries. After two days, the criminals were finally apprehended in Rivne, Ukraine.

King CROSSWORD

• It was French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre who made the following sage observation: "Three o'clock is always too late or too early for anything you want to do."


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PAUL BUNYAN (continued): • According to folklore, Bunyan formed the DEERE. JOHN DEERE. (continued): Great Lakes out of a need for a large enough • It was while living in Illinois that John nowatering hole for Babe the Blue Ox to drink ticed the problems that farmers faced when from. He supposedly cleared North Dakota of attempting to till soil. Because the area had itsformerly forests and beenMinnesota’s woodland, 10,000 the soillakes was were rich reportedly formed by his and Babe’s footprints with hummus, which clumped and clung to asthethey stumbled through a huge blades of the plows farmers wereblizzard. accusWhen fellow loggers to dinner tomedhetocalled using.his While repairing a broken cir-in the camp, did sostumbled by blowing cular saw,heDeere uponthrough an idea.a holHe low tree or his bellowing loudly enoughthe to cause employed smith skills to fashion steel bladetointo shape a plow. He affixed limbs fall the from trees.ofHis monumental logtwo wooden spokes, then hitched the device ging camp was on the fictional Big Onion to a horse. It plowed the heavy Illinois soil River. like a charm. In fact, a farmer who happened • There more than 200run roadside statuesputof to be are observing the test immediately Paul Bunyan across the United States in an order for his own John Deere plow. and Canada, from California to Oregon to British • In short order, Deere gave up his blacksmith Columbia to Idaho, Oklahoma, North Dakota, shop and focused on making plows. The Indiana, Missouri, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and company grew steadily and added many emNew York. Perhaps the tallest is in Klamath, ployees. In the late 1840s, John relocated the California, towering 49 feet Illinois. above that town’s entire operation to Moline, Ashamed Trees of Mystery attraction. A 35-ft.-tall of his own lack of education, John sentBabe his stands beside him. children to the state’s finest schools. One of his proudest days occurred when son Charles • Oscoda, Michigan, has declared itself Bunearned the equivalent of an MBA from Bell’s yan’s official home because James MacGilliCommercial College in Chicago. vray’s early documents came from there. But • they With his son Charles the company, need to get in linemanaging behind Bemidji, MinJohn found time to pursue philanthropic innesota, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, and Bangor, terests. He co-founded both the First NationMaine. al Bank and the First Congregational Church. • The of Maine claimsofit Moline has a birth cerHe state was elected the mayor in 1873, tificate. Hackensack, Minnesota maintains where one of his first actions – the replacement of the city’s open drains withhails a sewer that Bunyan’s sweetheart Lucette from pipe system – saved countless lives by reducthat community and they have constructed a ing the disease. statue of spread her andoftheir son, Paul, Jr. in a downTwoJohn places contend are home • town The park. original Deere logo, they registered in to1876, Bunyan’s grave – Kelliher, and depicted a deer that wasMinnesota, native to Africa. Thirty-six years later, in 1912, it was reWausau, Wisconsin. placed with the image of a North American white-tailed deer. In the decades that followed, the for now-familiar “outline” logo took Thanks Reading Tidbits! over as the symbol of the John Deere brand. Information in the Tidbits® Paper is gathered from sources considered to be reliable, but the accuracy of all information cannot be guaranteed.

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