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January 30, 2014
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GLACIERS by Patricia L. Cook
Glaciers form when fallen snow doesn’t melt but compresses over years of buildup into large, sometimes gigantic, thick snow masses. As the snow sits in one place it transforms into ice.
• Ice masses that form glaciers are able to move like very slow rivers. There are smaller ones about the size of football fields but many grow to be over 62 miles long. Glaciers are found on most continents of the world, even Africa. The majority are found in Antarctica and Greenland. • The formation of glaciers depends on climatic and geographic conditions. Most occur above the “snow line,” in mountainous areas or at the polar regions. The snow line is an altitude at which more snow accumulates in the winter than will melt in the summer. While the snow line in Antarctica is at sea level, in Africa it is above 16,732 feet, Washington State’s snow line occurs at around 5500 feet. Because of a lack of snowfall, Siberia is an extremely cold area that has no glaciers. • Canada has the most glaciers in North America, covering over 77 square miles. Glaciers cover 29 square miles in the United States, including Alaska; and only 4.25 square miles Turn the page in Mexico. for more! Publish a We provide the opportunity for success!
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GLACIERS (continued): • Approximately 10% of the land area on earth is covered in glacial ice. That is over 5.8 million square miles! • About 75% of the world’s freshwater is stored in glaciers. The ice of Antarctica is over 2.6 miles thick in some places.
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• Ice sheets are masses of glacial land ice that extend more than 20,000 square miles. There are two ice sheets on the earth today, covering most of Antarctica and Greenland.
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5. Which Charlton Heston movie used more than 1 million props? 6. Who released the song “Going How many glaciers are there now Up the Country” in 1968? in Glacier National Park? 7. What kind of creature is a newt? What is the most significant fact 8. Which book written by Charles about the U.S./Canadian border? Dickens features a young boy What is the word for a “narrow named Pip? inlet of the sea between cliffs or 9. About how long is the Iditarod steep slopes?” Trail sled dog race? 10. What’s the capital of Rhode Island? The ancient Inca empire was centered in which South TRIVIA American country?
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• According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) based in Boulder, Colorado, there are eleven types of glaciers: ice sheets, ice shelves, ice caps, ice streams/outlet glaciers, icefields, mountain glaciers, valley glaciers, piedmont glaciers, cirque glaciers, hanging glaciers and tidewater glaciers.
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• More than 99% of the freshwater ice on earth is contained in the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. The Antarctic Ice Sheet covers an area about the size of the United States and Mexico combined. The Greenland Ice Sheet, which covers most of Greenland, is three times the size of Texas. • When ice from the gigantic ice sheets oozes into the sea or ocean which is cold enough for the ice to remain frozen, ice shelves can form. Ice shelves float over water but are still connected to land. The ice shelves can grow as they gain ice from the ice sheets or shrink if icebergs “calve” off at the edges. (Calving is the term used when icebergs break off.) • There are some large ice shelves on the northern coast of Canada’s Ellesmere Island. However, most of the ice shelves on earth hug the coast of Antarctica.
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4. Which quarterback has the highest career passer rating in Super Bowl games (mini1. What team holds the record mum 40 attempts)? for most points scored in 5. What is the longest field goal one quarter of a Super Bowl made in Super Bowl history? game? 6. What is the most sacks by 2. T or F: There has been only one player in a Super Bowl one Super Bowl game where game? a team failed to score at least 7. How many times has a one touchdown. safety occurred in Super 3. Jerry Rice has the most career Bowl history? Super Bowl touchdowns with 8. How many two-point coneight. Which player has the versions have been scored second-most? in Super Bowl history?
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GLACIERS (continued): • Ice caps are miniature ice sheets. They cover fewer than 20,000 square miles. They are found in polar and sub-polar regions that are high in elevation and mostly flat. Iceland has an ice cap, as compared to the much larger ice sheet on Greenland. Ice fields are also similar with flow influenced by underlying ground that is not as flat. They are usually smaller than ice caps. • Ice streams are like little rivers that flow more rapidly than the glaciers they are surrounded by. The Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets have many ice streams that flow outwardly. • Mountain and valley glaciers are, as you may expect, named because of their locations. Mountain glaciers develop in high mountain areas and valley glaciers form from ice fields or mountain glaciers that spill into the valleys below them. • Valley glaciers tend to look like giant tongues when seen from above. They can sometimes reach sea level. • The largest mountain glaciers are found in the highest mountains of the world: the Himalayas in Asia, the Andes of South America, and the mountains of northern Canada, Alaska and on Antarctica. • When valley glaciers spill out onto flat plains they spread out into large lobes, forming piedmont glaciers. The Malaspina Glacier in Alaska is the largest piedmont glacier in the world. Formed by the spill-out from the Seward Ice Field and the Agassiz Glacier, the Malaspina fills the plain in southeastern Alaska. Since it does not connect to the Gulf of Alaska or any of its bays, it does not qualify as a tidewater glacier. The Malaspina Glacier spreads out over 1931 square miles of the coastal plain below the Saint Elias Mountains.
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GLACIERS (continued): • Glaciers that look like bowls high on mountainsides are called Cirque Glaciers. All of the glaciers in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado are cirque glaciers. The Matterhorn in Switzerland is an example of a “horn,” which is formed when the top of a mountain has been surrounded by cirque glaciers. • “Ice aprons,” or hanging glaciers cling to and as the name implies, hang from, steep mountainsides. These are common in the Alps and often have avalanches from their steep inclines. • When valley glaciers flow far enough to connect to the sea they are called tidewater glaciers. Many icebergs originate from tidewater glaciers. Hubbard Glacier, which is part of Glacier Bay National Park, is the largest tidewater glacier in North America. The highlight of most cruises to Alaska, the glacier was first mapped in 1895. Icebergs up to 200 feet high break off fairly often causing spectacular splashing and crashing and giving tourists quite a show. Glacier Bay has 16 tidewater glaciers. • Glacier Bay and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in Alaska, along with Kluane National Park and Reserve in the Yukon Territory and Tatshenshini-Alsek Park in British Columbia, form a vast ecological area that covers 37452 square miles. The area is mostly untouched except for a historic First Nations presence (Native Canadians). A massive complex of high peaks and glaciers, the area is home to many grizzly bears and caribou as well as the largest non-polar icefield in the world. The entire area was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993.
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Born in Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada on August 16, 1954, James Cameron grew up in Chippawa, a small town near Niagara Falls, Ontario. Through the years he has transformed from aIf you didn’t use H&R Block last year, bring in your return for a Second Look® Review. We small town Canadian to one of the most widelyusually find a ®different result which can mean more money for our clients. We’ll check for missed deductions to We’ll help make get the maximum refund you’re money forand ourcredits, clients. checksure foryou missed deductions and credits, known filmmakers in the world. entitled to. We’ll also certify whether or not your original return is accurate.¶ to help make sure you get the maximum refund you’re entitled to. We’ll
• Cameron’s father was an electrical engineer also certify whether or not your original return is accurate.1 and his mother an artist. He was encouraged to express himself artistically as well as to chalBased on Second Look Reviews conducted 2009-2011. Fees apply for Second Look® reviews or if you have us prepare a corrected or amended return. lenge himself mentally. He was a science fic-¶Results will vary. If H&R Block makes an error on your return, we’ll pay resulting penalties and interest. If you are audited, we’ll explain your audit notice and the documentation you should provide to the auditor. ©2011 HRB Tax Group, Inc. tion fan early on as a boy. • As a leader among his friends, Cameron organized adventures including building a catapult that would pitch boulders and even creating a miniature diving vessel that sent mice to the bottom of the Niagara River. • At the age of fifteen, Cameron watched the movie, 2001: A Space Odyssey. He was fascinated! He wanted to learn how Stanley Kubrick, the director, had put together such a thrilling motion picture. He watched the film ten times and was hooked on filmmaking for life.
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• Cameron’s father accepted a job in Orange County, California, when he was 17, and his interest in filmmaking started to fill his thoughts constantly. He had been writing science fiction stories and fantasizing about films instead of doing his homework for years; now he was near the movie capital of the world, Hollywood! • After high school, Cameron became a student at California State University at Fullerton, initially pursuing a degree in physics. He changed his major to English but after a short time, dropped out of college. • Cameron worked a short time as truck driver pulling over for rest stops to write screenplays. He then went to work as a self-taught designer emphasizing visual effects.
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MOMENTS IN TIME • On Feb. 3, 1959, rock stars Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.P. “The Big Bopper” Richardson are killed when their chartered plane crashes in Iowa a few minutes after takeoff. Holly and his band, the Crickets, had just scored a No. 1 hit with “That’ll Be the Day.” • On Feb. 4, 1789, George Washington, the commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, is unanimously elected the first president of the United States. John Adams of Massachusetts was elected vice president. • On Feb. 5, 1934, Henry Louis Aaron Jr., the baseball slugger who broke Babe Ruth’s legendary record of 714 homers, is born in Mobile, Ala. Aaron began his professional baseball career in 1952 in the Negro League and joined the Milwaukee Braves of the major leagues in 1954. • On Feb. 6, 1820, the first organized immigration of freed slaves to Africa from the United States departs New York harbor on a journey to Freetown, Sierra Leone, in West Africa. The expedition was partially funded
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by the U.S. Congress, which had appropriated $100,000 for the trip. • On Feb. 7, 1964, Pan Am Yankee Clipper flight 101 from London Heathrow lands at New York’s Kennedy Airport -- and “Beatlemania” arrives. It was the first visit to the United States by the Beatles. The British rock-and-roll quartet had just scored its first No. 1 U.S. hit with “I Want to Hold Your Hand.” • On Feb. 8, 1985, Sir William Lyons, founder of the British luxury automaker Jaguar, dies at the age of 84 in Warwickshire, England. Initially named SS Cars Ltd., the company changed its name to Jaguar Cars Ltd to avoid any association with the Schutzstaffel, the Nazi paramilitary group also referred to by the initials “SS.” • On Feb. 9, 1992, after stunning the world three months earlier with the news he had contracted the HIV virus and was immediately retiring from the game, basketball great Magic Johnson returns to play in the 42nd NBA All-Star game in Orlando, Fla. The crowd greeted him with a standing ovation.
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JAMES CAMERON (continued): • Cameron is best known today as the Oscarwinning director of Aliens (1986), Titanic (1997), and Avatar (2009). • In preparing for the movie, Titanic, Cameron spent a lot of time at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. He studied/observed the wreckage in twelve dives to the site. Explaining his feelings, he said, “Working around the wreck for so much time, you get such a strong sense of the profound sadness and injustice of it, and the message of it.” He felt a great responsibility to be historically accurate. • Titanic replaced Star Wars as the top-grossing film of all time (at that time, 1997-98) grossing over a billion dollars worldwide. The movie won eleven Oscars, including Best Picture and Best Director. • Titanic remained the top-grossing film until 2010, when another Cameron film, Avatar, replaced it. Cameron announced in August, 2013, that he plans to film three sequels to Avatar to be released in December of 2016, 2017 and 2018. • Cameron has combined his two passions: producing films and underwater exploration. As a National Geographic explorer-in-residence, he and his engineering team spent seven years developing the “Deepsea Challenger,” a unique manned submersible capable of going to the ocean’s greatest depths. In March 2012, he piloted the sub to the “lowest point in the Mariana Trench and the deepest known place on the planet.” (A depth of 35,800 feet, almost seven miles) After his exploration, the deepest solo dive in history, he shared his story as he traveled with his Deepsea Challenger across the country. He donated the sub to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
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When speaking of large birds most people think of the ostrich, emu, and “Big Bird” of Sesame Street. Those birds can’t fly, but swans can! • Three species of swans live on the continent of North America: the trumpeter swan, tundra swan, and the mute swan. The first two are indigenous, but the mute swan is a species that was introduced from Europe. All three types are large white birds. • Trumpeter swans are the largest swans and therefore the largest waterfowl in North America. They are also the heaviest flying birds on the continent. The “bustard” of Europe is the only flying bird anywhere that is heavier than a trumpeter swan. • Male trumpeter swans can weigh as much as 30 pounds, be more than 5 feet from bill to tail and have a wingspan of more than 7 feet from tip to tip.
by Samantha Weaver
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• A normal lifespan for a trumpeter swan is from 15-25 years but they can live to be 29-30 years old. They usually stay with the same mate for life, including migrating together. Sometimes when a nest fails to produce young cygnets mates will separate. The “divorce” rate among these swans is about 6%. • Trumpeter swans are fairly social and congregate in large groups except during breeding season when they are quite protective of their turf. • A male swan is called a “cob,” the female a “pen,” and baby chicks are known as “cygnets.” Cygnets are gray when they are born but lose those baby feathers and are completely white by the time they are one year old.
• If you’re thinking about moving to another country, you might want to consider Finland. In that country, employees are offered, on average, 44 paid vacation days every year. Of course, you might want to consider that even in the warm southwestern part of the country, winters last about 100 days, with snow covering the ground from mid-October to early May. • The name of the state of Iowa (unsurprisingly) comes from a Native American language. The original word, “ayuxba,” means “sleepy ones.” • Early science-fiction author E.E. “Doc” Smith wasn’t just a writer; he also was an engineer. He’s the guy who figured out how to get powdered sugar to stick to doughnuts. * * * Thought for the Day: “To be capable of embarrassment is the beginning of moral consciousness. Honor grows from qualms.” -- John Leonard
• It was noted Irish author and wit Oscar Wilde who made the following sage observation: “There are only two tragedies in life: one is not getting what one wants, and the other is getting it.” • The very first CD of a musical recording was made in 1982. The album was “The Visitors” by Swedish pop superstars ABBA. • Immigrants arriving at New York’s Ellis Island in the early years (1892-1920s) were given bananas to eat. Many had never seen a banana and didn’t know how to eat one -- some ate the whole thing, peel and all. • In the small African nation of Swaziland, the Civil Aviation Authority has set a ceiling of 500 feet on light aircraft. These aircraft, as well as kites and remote controlled toys, are not allowed to go above that limit. Also included in the category of light aircraft are broomsticks. Any witch who flies on a broomstick above that limit is subject to a fine of more than $50,000 and possible arrest.
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TRUMPETER SWANS (continued): • When a pen lays her eggs, she does so in an DEERE. JOHN DEERE. (continued): unusual way. She will lay one egg every other • day It was while living in Illinois that John no-to until she has a total nest, usually three ticedeggs. the problems farmers faced when eight She does that not start incubation until attempting to till soil. Because the area had her “clutch” (group or hatch of eggs) is comformerly been woodland, the soil was rich plete so that all of her cygnets hatch within a which clumped and clung to 24with hourhummus, period. Nests are often built on top of the blades of the plows farmers were accusbeaver lodges or muskrat houses using stems, tomed to using. While repairing a broken cirleaves, cattails andstumbled more. Aupon pen only hatches cular saw, Deere an idea. He one clutch of eggs per year and the incubation employed his smith skills to fashion the steel period about days.of a plow. He affixed blade isinto the 34 shape two wooden spokes, then hitched the Grande device • Saskatoon Island Provincial Park near to a horse. It plowed the heavy Illinois soil Prairie, Alberta holds an annual Swan Festilike a charm. fact, a farmer who happened val every April,Inproviding a fun time to learn to be observing the test run immediately put about and observe trumpeter swans. in an order for his own John Deere plow. • Another place to see the big birds is at Har• In short order, Deere gave up his blacksmith riman State Park in Island Park, Idaho, near shop and focused on making plows. The Yellowstone National Park. population company grew steadily andThe added many em-of resident trumpeter swans does not migrate but ployees. In the late 1840s, John relocated the stays inoperation the tri-state region of Idaho,Ashamed Montana entire to Moline, Illinois. and Wyoming. of his own lack of education, John sent his children to the state’s finest schools. One of • These interesting swans actually go through his proudest days occurred when son Charles a flightless period every year when they molt earned of an MBA from Bell’s (or lose)the all equivalent of their feathers. Typically occurCommercial College in Chicago. ring in July and August, they are not able to • fly With Charles managing the company, for his 1-2son months. John found time to pursue philanthropic in• Not surprising, trumpeter soterests. He co-founded both swans the Firstwere Nationnamed of their trumpet-like call. al Bankbecause and the First Congregational Church. Deep and loud they can be heard from quite He was elected the mayor of Moline in 1873, a where distance. most similar bird to the trumoneThe of his first actions – the replacepeter is the tundra swan. They are most easily ment of the city’s open drains with a sewer distinguished of their sounds. pipe system –because saved countless lives by Tundra reducing thesound spreadmore of disease. swans like geese, with a quaverhigh-pitched call. • ing The original John Deere logo, registered in 1876, depicted a deer that was native Afri• It is easy to confuse geese, ducks andtoswans. ca. Thirty-six years later, in 1912, it was reGenerally, swans are the largest with the lonplaced with Geese the image a Northnecks American gest necks. haveof longer than white-tailed deer. In the decades folducks; ducks are almost always thethat smallest lowed, the now-familiar “outline” logo took of the three types of waterfowl. over as the symbol of the John Deere brand.
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