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Malloy 14 academics also limits people’s faith in them; there is fear and anxiety.20 The challenges for participatory design are twofold: the first is that in order to use this process we must recognize all people as creative; the second is that we must relinquish power. To see this way can take time and patience; it is a change of attitude for many. Additional criticisms depend on which type of co-creation you are looking at; for Sanders, on the research end, cost and time are big factors. Advertisers, in some ways, have recognized co-creation as a means to host discourse that might have already taken place elsewhere. Participatory design, ironically, is a means to make more controllable the less controllable.21 Skeptics would argue participatory design and co-creation lack control of meaning and message and give unnecessary recognition of the unqualified as creators. For business, the risks of an unclear message, a high cost with immeasurable returns, or an overall compromise of their position for power may seem incredibly daunting. In 2008, the American Institute of Graphic Arts, AIGA, predicted the “Designer Trends of 2015.” Among them were breaking through an attention economy and sharing experiences through a co-creation model based on mass customization, transparency, filters, social media, and ethnographic research.22 However, that article was published three years ago. Why have we not seen more of this discourse in practice and higher education if, in fact, it is touted to be a need for the future? There must be barriers. A big part of the challenge is that visual communication is largely subject to clients. If clients are unwilling, visual communication is out of luck. It has been a matter of time, and, as we are seeing, the time has come. Businesses are 20

Sanders, Stappers, "Co-Creation and the New Landscape of Design." 10.

21

C.B., Bhattacharya, Sankar Sen. "Consumer-Company Identification: A Framework for Understanding

Consumer's Relationships with Companies." The Journal of Marketing 67, no. 2 (2003): 76-88. jstor.org/stable/30040524 (accessed April 1, 2011). 22

"Designer of 2015 trends“ AIGA | the professional association for design." AIGA | the professional

association for design. http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/designer-of-2015-trends (accessed October 5, 2009).

Profile for Renee Malloy

Adaptive Design for Visual Communicators:Reexamining Relationships and Making Theory Apply  

Adaptive Design for Visual Communicators:Reexamining Relationships and Making Theory Apply is my MFA thesis paper. Please enjoy.

Adaptive Design for Visual Communicators:Reexamining Relationships and Making Theory Apply  

Adaptive Design for Visual Communicators:Reexamining Relationships and Making Theory Apply is my MFA thesis paper. Please enjoy.

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