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Graduation Rates of CTE Students debate methodologies, such as those using cumulative promotion index (Swanson & Chaplin, 2003), AFGR (Seastrom et al., 2005), adjusted completion rate (Greene & Winters, 2006), and estimated completion rate (Warren, 2005; Warren & Halpern-Manners, 2009). Warren and Halpern-Manners (2009) have offered a comparison of CCD-based approaches to calculating graduation rate, most of which (AFGR, ACR, BCR, and CPI) offer biased results if student migration and/or grade retention are considered. While their calculations vary, scholars do agree that the consequences of dropping out of high school are stark, not only for students and their families, but also for their states of residence, which experience negative repercussions such as increased crime (Pascopella, 2007), increased poverty rates (Aud, KewalRamani, & Frohlich, 2011), decreased health (Aud, KewalRamani, & Frohlich, 2011), and decreased tax revenue, resulting in an average lifetime loss to a state’s economy of approximately $240,000 (based on 2008 inflation rates) for each high school dropout (Chapman, Laird, & KewalRamani, 2010). Chapman, Laird, and KewalRamani (2010) reported on behalf of the National Center for Education Statistics that the average person in the U.S. aged 18 to 67 in 2009 without a high school degree earned a median annual income of $25,000, and some estimates were much bleaker (Chow & Whitlock, 2010)—well short of the estimated “living wage” of approximately $32,000 during that time period (Chow & Whitlock, 2010). Aud, KewalRamani, and Frohlich (2011) demonstrated that high school dropouts were at a significantly greater risk of living in poverty (31%) as young adults than those who graduated from high school (24%). Further disheartening is the fact that those high school students who do graduate often do not succeed due to their inability to meet employers’ specific skills and educational requirements

Graduation Rates and Contributing Factors in CTE Students  
Graduation Rates and Contributing Factors in CTE Students  

Published in Proceedings of 2013 CREATE Conference Authors: Young Bin Lim Sean Owen Alexis Nordin