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Maritime Security&Risk By: Billy Goodburn – RMS Consulting

Historic events have proven that no country in the world is safe against terrorists. Terrorist attacks can, for whatever motives, occur at any time and at any place. Even the shipping industry cannot escape that fact. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO), the international organisation that is responsible for the safety of the shipping industry in general, has issued a number of obligatory regulations and recommendations that constitute a framework within which maritime safety can be improved considerably. These obligatory regulations and recommendations are documented in an international agreement, the International Treaty for the Safety of Lives at Sea (SOLAS) and the accompanying code, the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code, also known as the ISPS Code. The Code has the following objectives: 1. Creation of an international framework for cooperation between states entering into a treaty, public bodies, local governments and the shipping and port industries to recognise the security threats and take preventive measures against security incidents relating to ships and port facilities in use during international trade; 2. Determination of the respective roles and responsibilities of the states entering into a treaty, public bodies, local governments and the shipping and port facilities on a national and international level to insure the maritime security;

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3. A  ssurance for a timely and effective collection and exchange of information in the area of security; 4. P  rovision of a methodology to execute the security assessments in order to have plans and procedures available in order to be able to react on changing security levels; 5. T  o inspire confidence that adequate and appropriate maritime security measures have been taken. The ISPS Code contains detailed securityrelated requirements for governments, port authorities and shipping companies. It is intended to enable better monitoring of freight flows, to combat smuggling and to respond to the threat of terrorist attacks and piracy. Maritime security has come a long way since the introduction of the code, which has been in force since July 1, 2004. The regulations, allow for a wide range of security measures to be in implemented for both ships and port facilities. Each port facility and ship has an obligation to implement a security plan which addresses the specific risks relating to the shipping sector and security measures to be implemented to reduce such risks. These plans need to be updated annually and have to be approved by the Department of Transport (Maritime) and the local administrations (Port Authorities) responsible for the implementation and enforcement of the code at a National level. External organisations, who conduct compliance audits against the ISPS Code, also have to be registered with the Department of Transport (Maritime) and have an obligation to keep themselves up to date with the latest developments in legislation and trends relating to the risks. These organisations are known within the code as an RSO (Recognised Security Organisation). Current global trends indicate a huge increase in piracy threats that have an impact on

maritime security as a whole. Mariners are more at risk when transiting in the following areas: South East Asia and Indian Sub Continent Bangladesh Indonesia : Anambas / Natuna / Mangkai islands area, Belawan Malacca Straits Malaysia :Â Off Tioman / Pulau Aur / South China Sea. Singapore Straits : South China Sea : in the vicinity of Anambas / Natuna islands area. Vietnam : Vung Tau Africa and Gulf of Aden Lagos (Nigeria) Conakry (Guinea) Gulf of Aden / Red Sea: Somalia - northern, eastern and southern coast of Somalia. The attacks have spread and taken place very far reaching up to off Kenya, off Tanzania, off Seychelles, off Madagascar and in the Indian Ocean beyond 69 degrees east longitude and Arabian Sea / off Oman South and Central America and the Caribbean waters Brazil Peru - Callao Rest of the world Arabian Sea / Off Oman Indian Ocean (West & Central) Off Seychelles / Off Madagascar

Piracy: (a Global issue)

Some Statistics on Piracy & Robberies at Sea. A total of 406 incidents of piracy and armed robbery have been reported in the 2009 annual piracy report issued by the ICC International Maritime Bureau’s Piracy Reporting Centre (IMB PRC). The table below shows an increase in the number of attacks that have occurred from 2006-2009.

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